4 “He laid the egg which Luther hatched” Born 1466 in RotterdamA Doctor of Divinity and royal counselor to Charles V“I expected quite another kind of bird”His Greek edition of the New Testament was used by the Reformers, Luther, Zwingli, Tyndale
5 Martin LutherFirst studied law at the University of Erfurt 1501Became an Augustinian Monk 1505, he was a devout Catholic and a “mad papist”Taught at the University of WittenbergExcommunicated in at the Diet of Worms
6 Martin LutherFirst studied law at the University of Erfurt 1501Became an Augustinian Monk 1505, he was a devout Catholic and a “mad papist”Taught at the University of WittenbergExcommunicated in at the Diet of Worms
7 The Ninety Five Thesis Oct 31, 1517 Posted on the door of the Castle ChurchDisputed the unbridled selling of indulgencesConsidered the beginning of the Reformation
8 When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, “Repent” (Mat 4:17), he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.Such as: “Why does not the pope empty purgatory for the sake of holy love and the dire need of the souls that are there if redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial.”
9 “as soon as a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs” Doctrine developed by the early medieval scholastics.Gave remission for the temporal punishment of sin not the eternal.Became a source for Papal wealth, the Pope could issue for all Catholics, Bishops could issue for their diocese.
10 The Diet of Worms 1521Called by Charles V to decide whether to give Imperial Authority to the papal bull excommunicating LutherAttended by the Pope’s Legates, German Estates, archbishops, bishops, noblemen and peasants…my conscience is bound in the word of God: I can not and will not recant anything,…Here I stand, I can do no other.After Luther had been released the Emperor withdrew his protection and endorsed the bull excommunicating Luther.
11 Huldrych Zwingli 1484-1531 Leader of the Swiss Reformation Pastor of the Gross Munster church in ZurichInfluenced by Luther and ErasmusMet with Luther at the Castle MarburgPersecuted the AnabaptistsDied in the Second War of Kappel
15 John CalvinUsed income from two churches to pay for his educationCarried on the reformation after Zwingli diedWrote the “Institutes of Christian Religion”Oversaw the arrest and execution of Michael Servetus 1553
16 An excerpt from Calvin’s commentary on the Psalms And first, since I was too obstinately devoted to the superstitions of popery to be easily extricated from so profound an abyss of mire, God by a sudden conversion subdued and brought my mind to a teachable frame, which was more burdened in such matters than might have been expected from one at my early period of life.
17 The AnabaptistsThe radicals or re-baptizers began with a radical movement within the reformationDenied infant baptism as true baptism, members were re-baptized after a confession of faithWere persecuted by Protestants and Catholics alikeCentral figures: Felix Manz, Michael Sattler, Menno Simmons
18 Ecclesia Semper Refermanda (the Church always reforming) The doctrine of justification by faith aloneThe recovery of the GospelThe translation and distribution of the Bible among the common peopleThe priesthood of all believersThe lordship of Christ over all life