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Language Disorders in Children

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1 Language Disorders in Children
Unit Five Language Disorders in Children

2 Foundations of Language Disorders in Children
Chapter 16 Foundations of Language Disorders in Children

3 Language Disorder Impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems May involve form, content, and/or use This is ASHA’s definition (1993) 3

4 Language Delay Slower start at developing language but eventually catch up to peers

5 Language Difference Language affected by cultural and linguistic diversity

6 Prevalence and Incidence
7 to 8 percent of kindergarten children have specific language impairments with no other complicating conditions 2 percent more boys than girls have specific language impairment (SLI)

7 Multicultural Considerations
All clients must be respected as individuals with individual cultural and ethnic values Many children from CLD backgrounds live in poverty Increases the risk for language problems

8 Specific Language Impairments
Chapter 17 Specific Language Impairments

9 Severity Levels Mild Moderate Severe Profound
See Figure 17-1 of Paul’s (2001) list of variations in severity 9

10 Specific Language Impairments (SLI)
Significant receptive and/or expressive language impairments that cannot be attributed to a cause or condition

11 SLI A complex disorder that may have multiple genetic influences that interact with environmental factors

12 Red Flags for a Potential SLI
First word after 18 months Two word combinations later than 30 months of age Reliance on gestures Limited use of verbs

13 Red Flags for a Potential SLI
Lack of yes/no responses to questions Difficulty with rhyming and naming letters Difficulty initiating interactions with peers Poor conversational turn-taking

14 Receptive Language Difficulty understanding and integrating information Difficultly understanding words

15 Phonology May produce unusual phonological errors
Substitutions of t/r or k/b

16 Morphology and Syntax Late developing morphology and syntax
Use short, incomplete sentences Simple, active form Refer to list from Hegde and Maul (2006) and Leonard, McGregor and Allen (1992) in text.

17 Vocabulary Small vocabularies Slow acquisition of vocabulary
Poor word knowledge Word-finding problems See Table 17-1 in text.

18 Discourse/Dialogue Difficulty having conversations with others

19 Narratives Difficulty telling stories or recounting events
Due to limited vocabulary: Challenges with morphology/syntax Recalling memories of events Organization of information

20 Pragmatics Initiate conversations less
Difficulty gaining access to conversations Passive conversationalists Case study of Michael is presented.

21 Language-Learning Disabilities
Chapter 18 Language-Learning Disabilities

22 Language-Learning Disabilities (LLD)
Term SLI is usually changed to language-learning disability when a child enters school LLD has effects on learning and educational achievement

23 LLD Prevalence is 12 to13 percent for 5 year olds
4.5 percent also have speech disorders

24 Metalinguistics Ability to think about and talk about language
Very difficult for children with LLD

25 Adolescents: Receptive Language
Weak vocabulary Difficulty with abstract words and words with multiple meanings Figurative language (slang, jargon) is difficult

26 Adolescents: Expressive Language
Use low content or no content words Simple syntax Violate pragmatic rules

27 Developmental Disabilities and Language Disabilities
Disability originating before 18 years of age Significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior Prevalence is 1 to 3 percent

28 Classification Systems
AAMR system indicates amount of support for individuals with developmental disabilities See Table 18-1 See Table 18-1 for levels of impairment.

29 Receptive Language Single word comprehension better than longer utterances Understand concrete information better than abstract information

30 Expressive Language Limited vocabulary Difficulty with word recall
Don’t initiate conversations

31 Phonology Speech unintelligibility is common
Up to 70 percent of children with developmental disabilities

32 Down Syndrome Most common chromosomal cause of developmental disabilities Impaired comprehension and expressive skills Speech affected by hypotonia and/or macroglossia

33 Autism Complex behavioral syndrome that appears by age 3
Marked absent interest in social interaction Severely impaired communication Repetitive, stereotyped movements

34 Autism Intellectual disabilities occur in three-quarters of children with autism Autism is within the broader category of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ASD is within category of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) See Figure 18-2.

35 Autism: Receptive Language
Receptive language abilities are similar to child’s mental age

36 Autism: Expressive Language
50 percent are nonverbal Echolalia Automatic repetition of words, phrases, sentences Used by some Idiosyncratic language used

37 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Acquired injury to the brain Children tend to have good recovery May have long-term speech and language deficits Cognitive impairments may occur Memory, attention, problem solving Case study of Azzie presented.

38 Assessment and Diagnosis of Language-Learning Disabilities
Chapter 19 Assessment and Diagnosis of Language-Learning Disabilities

39 Purposes of Assessment
Does the child qualify for services Identification of language problems Description of patterns of language Factors associated with language problems Treatment planning Prognosis

40 Approaches to Assessment
Normalist/Psychometric Naturalistic/descriptive/criterion-referenced

41 Psychometric Formal approach to assessment
Standardized tests are administered and interpreted Tests are normed on a large group of children so comparisons can be made

42 Criterion-Referenced
Description of a child’s language abilities based on natural observations Comparison of present performance to past performance

43 Screening Brief one-on-one observation and measure of a child's communication abilities Figure 19-1 provides examples of language screening instruments.

44 Assessment Protocol Interview Formal evaluation Hearing screening
Articulation/phonology Language Orofacial structures Hearing screening Meeting to review test results

45 Evaluation of Receptive Language
Single word vocabulary Morphology Sentence structures Following commands Questions See Table 19-1 for a list of tests for different age levels.

46 Evaluation of Expressive Language
Sounds and words Morphology Naming Answering questions Narrative skills Conversations See Table 19-1 for tests.

47 Language Samples A sample of the child's speech with a clinician and/or family member Allows for a systematic analysis to determine speech and language competence

48 Decision Making Child's strength and weakness Severity of impairment
Contributors to the impairment Treatment recommendations

49 Therapy Approaches Traditional Functional Collaborative
Often used in schools

50 Evaluation of Bilingual Children
Both languages should be evaluated If one language is within normal limits, then a disorder probably does not exist A concomitant disorder may exist

51 Treatment of Language Disorders
Chapter 20 Treatment of Language Disorders

52 Baseline Measures Measure of a behavior at the beginning of treatment
Future progress can be compared to this baseline

53 Selecting Goals Operationally defined goal must include:
An observable and measurable behavior Setting/environment Criterion Percent accuracy Stimuli used

54 Three Models of Therapy
Within discipline Interdisciplinary Transdisciplinary General principles of therapy are presented in Figure 20-2.

55 Traditional Approach to Teaching Language Skills
Focus on functional language skills Skills relevant to a child’s environment at home and/or school Structured hierarchical approach to moving through goals Text prides a structure approach for a

56 Structure of Sessions Use well-organized and structured sessions
Clinician is preplanned but flexible to accommodate the child’s needs

57 General Session General conversation
Review of what child has worked on Work on new targets Review of another skill Challenging tasks End of session

58 Other Therapy Approaches
Functional language model Emerging language model Collaborative model Naturalistic model

59 Multicultural Considerations
SLPs need to consider their own cultural beliefs, attitude, and values Do not use generic terms Beware of terms that have questionable or negative racial or ethnic connotations

60 Multicultural Considerations
Present clear explanations and objectives Use methods that do not violate beliefs of client Be flexible Interact with clients according to their perceptions and expectations

61 Multicultural Considerations
Be task oriented Use praise Provide opportunities to learn

62 Literacy Disorders in Children
Chapter 21 Literacy Disorders in Children

63 Literacy Disorder Individual has both reading and writing impairments

64 Dyslexia Most common learning disability in children and adults
75 to 85 percent of children with learning disabilities have reading impairments Prevalence is 4:1 Male to female

65 Emergent Literacy Literacy development begins soon after birth
Literacy and language are reciprocally related Children are active in literacy process

66 Skills Related to Literacy Achievement
Phonological awareness Oral language Alphabet knowledge Concepts about print Name writing

67 Emergent Literacy Adult involvement is essential
Shared storybook reading is important component

68 Possible Contributions of English to Reading Difficulties
Inconsistencies in pronunciations of words Inconsistencies in letter-sound correspondence Inconsistencies in shapes of letters See Table 21-1

69 Problems of Children with Literacy Disabilities
Deficits in phonological processing Word recognition and spelling Underachievement

70 Secondary Consequences
Academic difficulties Influences on occupation and career choices Reading as a leisure activity Interpersonal relationships

71 Writing Reading and writing are connected
Different types of writing require different cognitive abilities and use different vocabulary

72 Writing Problems Inadequate reference to subject
Inconsistent noun-pronoun agreement Inconsistent gender words Punctuation problems Spelling errors

73 Multicultural Considerations
Children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds Greater likelihood of beginning school less prepared to learn to read than other groups of children

74 Effects of Language Disorders on the Child and Family
Chapter 22 Emotional and Social Effects of Language Disorders on the Child and Family

75 Parents Parents alter their interactions if their child has a language impairment Parents initiate more interactions Ask more questions Use fewer utterances per turn Respond or comment less to their child

76 Parents There is an emotional response by parents to learning that their child has a problem IEP meetings may be overwhelming Not all cultures support family involvement Some parents may have their own language or cognitive problems

77 Toddlers and Preschoolers
May be perceived negatively by other preschoolers because of poor communication and social skills

78 School-age Children with LLD
May be less accepted by their peers Children with LLD perceive themselves more negatively that their peers Tend to avoid social interaction

79 Adolescents Emotional-social difficulties increase for adolescents with LLD Mental issues and anxiety disorders may develop

80 Personal and Societal Costs
Undereducation and underemployment are common results for an adult with a language disorder Adolescent language disorders are related to juvenile delinquency

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