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What increases obedience? Setting Culture Power to punish Consensus Authoritarian personality Uniform.

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Presentation on theme: "What increases obedience? Setting Culture Power to punish Consensus Authoritarian personality Uniform."— Presentation transcript:

1 What increases obedience? Setting Culture Power to punish Consensus Authoritarian personality Uniform

2 What increases obedience? Situational Factors: Setting: Physical environment Culture: Collective high, Individualistic low Power to punish: In lab coat high, normal clothes low Consensus: Sheep, more people disobey more people will follow Dispositional Factors: Authoritarian personality: High obedience Bickman: Uniform: Guard high, milkman medium, jacket and tie low Prisons: Uniform and power to punish Schools: Behaviour for Learning, hierarchy

3 Attachment Insecure- ambivalent Hazen and Shaver Critical Period Love QuizTwo way process between parent and child Monotropy Care of children in nurseries Stranger anxiety Reinforcement Separation Protest Strange situation Sample unrepresentative Rewards Critical Period Care of children in hospitals Secure attachment NatureNurture Questionnaire Deprivation Clear relationship between the type of attachment Privation as infants and as adults Hospitals Insecure-avoidant Problems of people being honest

4 Definitions Attachment Secure Attachment Insecure-Ambivalent Strange situation Insecure avoidant Separation Protest Stranger anxiety Bowlbys Theory of Attachment Monotropy Critical Period Deprivation Privation and secure/insecure attachments Nature Behaviourist Theory Reinforcement nurture Reward two way process Hazen and Shaver Love Quiz Questionnaire Problems of people being honest Unrepresentative sample Attachment Applications: Hospitals and care of children in nurseries

5 Memory Work out what order the key terms are in and which theory/definition. Then as a group decide on the explanation of that theory or model. Which memory aid could help you to remember this model? Explain how you could use it!

6 Definitions and Real Life Applications Input EncodingStorage RetrievalOutput Accessibility and Availability problems Information Processing approach Real Life Application: Memory Aids Use of cues for Reconstructions Imagery Mind maps Core Theory: Multi-store model Sensory Memory Store Short-Term Memory (STM) Long-Term Memory (LTM) Displacement/ Forgetting Decay Brian Damage Forgetting Rehearsal/ Transfer of information Attention Retrieval Output Input from your sens es Criticisms: Too rigid and no account of individual differences Too simple STM and LTM Too much emphasis on the role of rehearsal. You need the mode (all definitions), forgetting and criticisms Alternative Theory: Levels of Processing We dont need to rehearse to remember. If something is meaningful and significant it will go in! No different memory stores Deep processing: Coding information for meaning. Read a piece of writing and try to understand what it means and we are more likely to recall. Shallow processing: Coding information based on its physical characteristics only (no meaning). Less likely to recall Core Study: Terry (TV adverts) Aim: Is a persons memory affected by time and space? Method: 10 month old TV adverts in a lab experiment. 2 groups: Condition 1: recall straight away after seeing clips. Condition 2: recall after a 30 second writing task Findings/Results: Serial position effect it depended on where the TV advert was to whether you remembered it. Straight away condition: Primacy (first) and Recency (last) effect (more likely to be remembered. Delayed Condition: only the Primacy effect. Criticisms: Lab experiment so not real life and lacks ecological validity and demand characteristics people do what they think the experimenter wants them to do as it is a memory experiment

7 ConditioningDefinitionPavlov and Dogs Watson and Rayner: Little Albert (phobia e.g.) Unconditional Stimulus Something that triggers an automatic response FoodHit steel bar with hammer: noise Unconditional Response A response that is natural and does not need to be learnt SalivateCry Neutral stimulusSomething that does not trigger a response Ringing the BellPlaying with white rat Conditioning/ Association Learning through association so that certain stimuli are associated with certain responses Bell rings at same time as food so dog learns to associate food with bell White rat is given to Little Albert at same time as steel bar is hit behind his head. Little Albert learns to associate noise with white rat Conditional stimulus Something that triggers a learnt response BellWhite rat Conditional response A response that has been learnt through association SalivateCry and try and run off! Behaviourist Theory: 1. Classical Conditioning Nurture: Learn through Association: A phobia is learnt because the fear has become associated with a particular object or experience. Methods of Pavlov and Little Albert Behaviourist Theory 2: Operant conditioning: Behaviourist Nurture: Learn through Reinforcement Skinners box: You learn through reinforcement either positive or negative. The rat in the box is rewarded every time he presses the lever down as he receives food (pellets). The operant is the behaviour of the rat (pushing the pedal) and the Reinforcer (food) How does this work for phobias? We learn to have a phobia because of the consequences of our actions. We are more likely to repeat behaviour if we have a reward and less likely to repeat if we have a punishment. A small child is scared of the dark, parent comforts child and child likes this so starts to show even more fear of the dark to get more hugs! This could lead to a phobia of the dark because we have been rewarded: Positive reinforcement Evaluation/Limitations 1. The theory only focuses on peoples behaviour and does not investigate peoples thinking 2. Behaviourists believe that you need to have directly experienced the situation, object or animal you are scared of. There is the nature argument instead which says we have instincts to be scared of certain situations, animals etc… the Evolutionary Theory Phobias: Core Theory

8 Sex and Gender: Sex Gender Masculinity Femininity Androgyny Biological Theory v Psychodynamic Theory Core Theory: Bruce Real Life Applications

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