Presentation on theme: "Lesson 2 – Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lesson 2 – Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment BATsOutline and evaluate Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment.Outline = DEvaluate = B+
2 What is an attachment? A strong emotional bond. An enduring relationship with a significant other.A two-way interaction based on love, trust and security.
3 What is an attachment? A strong emotional bond. An enduring relationship with a significant other.A two-way interaction based on love, trust and security.
4 Measures of attachment separationprotestgetting upsetwhen parted from caregiverstrangeranxietyshowing feartowards unfamiliar people
5 Types of attachment INSECURE AVOIDANT INSECURE AMBIVALENT SECURE independent infantresponds to strangersnot too distressed ifparted from carerinfant feels safetrusts strangersbut prefers careris distressed ifparted from carerinfant is clingyfearful reactionstowards strangersvery distressed ifparted from carer
6 Early studies of Attachment Konrad LorenzAttachments in animals - imprinting
7 What implications does attachment type have on future behaviour? Studies have found that securely attached children tend to show the following ..The ability to get on with othersGood emotional development, showing confidence, trust in others and self esteemFlexibility and resourcefulnessLonger attention span, more confidence when attempting problems and using their mothers more effectively for help.
8 Core Theory – Bowlby’s Theory In the 1950’s John Bowlby developed a theory of AttachmentFrom birth infants are biologically programmed to cry, cling, make eye contact , smile and recognise human faces and sounds.The mother is also programmed to respond to these behaviours – mutual attachmentBoth mother and infant feel anxiety when separated.bowlby
9 Core Theory – Bowlby’s Theory He believed that by six to eight months infants shows separation anxiety and stranger fear demonstrating its attachment to its mother.Instinctively bond with one key figure - MONOTROPYNearly always the mother (this was the case in the 50’s is it the same 50 years later?), but he said it could be the person who cared for the child the most, the PRIMARY CAREGIVERbowlby’s monotropy and other explanations
10 Core Theory – Bowlby’s Theory He believed the attachment between a caregiver and infant had to happen at least in the first 3 years of the infant’s life.He called this the CRITICAL PERIOD for attachment.The mother provides security and a safe base from which the child can explore the world.This relationship acts as a role model for all future relationships - essential for child’s psychological well being.
11 Core Theory – Bowlby’s Theory If a child did not form an attachment in the first 5 years of life, they would suffer negative psychological effects, especially in adulthoodHe called this MATERNAL DEPRIVATIONIf a child never experiences the opportunity to form any sort of bond it causes PRIVATIONe.g GenieRomanian orphans
12 How do early attachments affect relationships? Children that form no attachments (privation) can grow up having significant problems with relationships due to poor social and language skills.Children who experience deprivation (because they are separated from an attachment figure) can grow up to suffer from problems such as depression (where they withdraw from others) or emotionless psychopathy (where they show a lack of consideration of others).Children who develop and maintain attachments are more likely to grow up to have productive relationships.
13 What do you think? Try activity 3.3 on p36 Then do the worksheet that summarises Bowlby’s theory
14 Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment Bowlby said that attachment is an _________ process which has developed through ________. Babies naturally attach to a caregiver because it aids their ________. He believed that babies attach to one primary caregiver (usually the ______). This idea is known as __________. However, this attachment has to take place in the first __ years of life (and ideally the first year) otherwise it has serious consequences for the child. He described these first years as the ________ period for attachment. If an attachment is broken then Bowlby believed that children suffered from maternal _____________. This meant that they ended up as affectionless ___________. He also believed that the negative effects of a broken attachment were ___________.
15 Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment Bowlby said that attachment is an instinctive process which has developed through evolution. Babies naturally attach to a caregiver because it aids their survival. He believed that babies attach to one primary caregiver (usually the mother). This idea is known as monotropy. However, this attachment has to take place in the first 3 years of life (and ideally the first year) otherwise it has serious consequences for the child. He described these first years as the critical period for attachment. If an attachment is broken then Bowlby believed that children suffered from maternal deprivation. This meant that they ended up as affectionless psychopaths. He also believed that the negative effects of a broken attachment were irreversible.
16 Privation or Deprivation? Copy out the definitions of Privation and DeprivationDo activity 3.5 on p38Extension : can you think of 3 criticisms of Bowlby’s theory?ITN Romanian orphans
17 Evaluating Bowlby’s Theory Bowlby vs Critics LearningMultiple AttachmentsSensitive PeriodReversible effectsInstinctMonotropyCritical PeriodIrreversible effects of Maternal DeprivationWhat views did Bowlby’s critics have
18 Homework – Outline and Evaluate Bowlby’sTheory of Attachment (10) In your exam you may be asked to write a long, essay style answer.The question above is an example and would be worth 10 marks.For 6 marks you would need to describe his theoryFor the other 4 marks you could evaluate the theory – what criticisms did others have of his theory and any evidence from other research that does not support his theoryP13 and 14 show an example of an essay
19 Plan your homeworkMake 6 bullet points to briefly outline Bowlby’s theoryMake 4 bullet points to note down why people criticised his theoryLook at p38 to give you hints on how to evaluate his theoryITN Romanian orphans