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Area of Study 1: Mozart Symphony No.40 In G minor Mov 1
GCSE Music Revision 2014 Area of Study 1: Mozart Symphony No.40 In G minor Mov 1
Background: The Classical Era
The Classical era (c.1750 – 1830) Movement away from the flamboyant and ornate, highly decorative Baroque era Classical architecture reflected influences of the Greeks and Romans Music from the era echoes the clear cut and balanced architecture Emphasis placed on graceful and regular phrasing bringing a new simplicity to musical composition Main composition forms were the Classical Symphony, String Quartet, Concerto and Sonata The period was dominated by the Vienesse composers (Vienna). These were: Mozart, Haydn & Beethoven
The Symphony One of the most important large scale genres invented during the Classical era The word symphony comes from the Italian word for “sounding together” The classical orchestra featured four families of instruments Early Classical symphony forms had 3 movements, however as the form developed a minuet and trio (from the baroque era) was added between the 2nd and 4th movement: Mov 1 Fast tempo Usually written in sonata form Mov 2 Slow tempo Various forms includin theme & variations Mov 3 Minuet & Trio Mov 4 Written in either rondo or sonata form
Symphony No.40 in G Minor Written in the key of G Minor
Melancholy feel (sadness) Written in sonata form: The score includes parts for the recently (at the time!) invented clarinets No orchestration for trumpets or drums (unusual in comparison to modern symphony orchestras) Exposition – Main themes or melodies are presented Development – develop ideas from the exposition Recapitulation – final section which balances with the opening
Exposition Bars 1 - 100 Bars 1 - 20 Bars 20 - 44 Bars 44 - 72
1st subject: Repeated idea which becomes an important motif throughout the rest of the movement. Bars 16 – 20 strong wood wind chords Strings play D octaves which form a dominant pedal Bars Linking Passage First subject repeated but altered (bars 24 – 27) Oboes & bassoons provide “harmonic filling” Bar 27 – 28 perfect cadence in Bb Major Bars 30 – 33 descending sequences in the violins Bar 28 – forte for full orchestra in the relative major of Bb Major Bars 2nd Subject: This theme is in the relative major (Bb major) Graceful use of semi tones Bar 44 - Falling figures represent sadness Bar 58 – a series of sequences extend the subject Bar 58 – 66 – Ab Major tonality, the music crescendos and ascends chromatically Bars Codetta This section is based on the first 3 notes of thee 1st subject Melodies cycled between different instruments (e.g. clarinet to bassoon) Bar 73 – Violins have the opening theme in minims – augmentation Bar 88 – 100 homophonic texture Repeat of the 1st subject which maintains balance and familiarity for the listener Exposition Bars
Development Bars 101 - 164 Bars 101 - 114 Bars 115 - 138
Music of the whole development is based entirely on the opening of the first subject Melody is doubled in octaves by the violins Bars 107 – 114 descending chromatic chords in bassoons Bars Music resolves to the key of E Minor Upper strings play a new quaver counter melody Woodwind provides harmonic support Bar 118 – modulation to A minor Barr 120 – modulation to D minor Bar 122 – modulation to G minor Bar 124 – modulation to C Major Constant explorations of new/different keys Bars Texture is reduces Use of dominant and tonic pedals in different parts Bar 153 – 160 – strong forte passage Development Bars
Recapitulation Bars 164 - 299 Bars 164 - 184 Bars 184 - 227 227 - 260
First subject in the key of G minor (a repeat of bars 1 – 20) Bars Linking passage This section takes the music from the tonic to the dominant key Development of motif ideas heard previously Second subject stated in the tonic key of G minor The melody is shared between the woodwind and strings (as in the exposition) Bar 245 – 251 – rising one-bar sequences Bar 252 – 254 – perfect cadence Bar 254 – 260 – rising form of the theme hard at bars 66 – 72 in the exposition, but now in G minor Recapitulation Bars
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