2 Background information approx.Followed on from the Baroque era.Famous composers include Mozart ( ), Haydn ( ), and Beethoven’s ( ) early works.
3 Key musical features: Music has simple, ‘singable’ melodies Music is usually made up of 4-8 bar phrasesClear, homophonic texture (usually)Dynamics extended to include crescendo and diminuendoTimpani are often the only percussion used
4 Trill: rapid and repeated movement between two adjacent notes. Ornaments: an ornament decorates a melody by adding extra notes. Ornaments are often short and add melodic and rhythmic interest.Trill: rapid and repeated movement between two adjacent notes.Grace note: A type of ornament played as a quick note before the main note of a melody.
5 Concepts commonly found in the Classical Era ImitationRepetitionMajor/minorChromaticSequenceStepwise / leapingPhraseQuestion/AnswerModulationCadencesClick on each concept to learn its definition.
6 IMITATIONWhere the melody is immediately copied higher or lower in another part.
7 REPETITIONA musical idea is heard more than once, or repeated several times.
15 CADENCESPERFECT: A cadence consists of two chords at the end of a phrase. A perfect cadence is the dominant to tonic chords (V-I). In the key of C major, chords G-C.IMPERFECT: A cadence consists of two chords at the end of a phrase. In an imperfect cadence the second chord is the dominant V creating an unfinished effect. In the key of C the second chord of an imperfect cadence would be the chord of G.
16 Features1. There was a lighter texture than baroque with melody often above chordal accompaniment.This means: Instead of composing very complicated contrapuntal pieces, composers began to write tunes with simpler accompaniments.
17 The composers began to compose in strict forms e.g. Binary form (AB) 2. Emphasis on grace and beauty of Melody and FormThis means: Composers wrote beautiful tunes that weren’t interrupted by the accompaniment.The composers began to compose in strict forms e.g.Binary form (AB)Ternary Form (ABA)Rondo Form
18 3. Variety and contrast within pieces of music e. g 3. Variety and contrast within pieces of music e.g. Key, Mood, DynamicsThis means:The composers experimented with thedifferent keys available to them.They wrote music in particular moods e.g. happy and sad.The composers used a wider range of dynamics than the Baroque composers. They didn’t just use forte and piano; they used all the others in between too.
19 4. Baroque harpsichord continuo is replaced by the piano The composers didn’t write a bass line with chords for the continuo anymore.Most accompanying was done on the piano.Bass instruments were given their own lines in orchestral music rather than having to improvise over the chords.
20 5. Alberti Bass accompaniment is often used This is: a left hand broken chord accompaniment
21 6. Importance is given to instrumental music Composers focused more on the sounds instruments could make and the music they could make for them rather than vocal music.BUT!They did still compose for voice!
22 InstrumentsThe Baroque orchestra developed into the Classical symphony orchestra with the introduction of more instruments such as:ClarinetTromboneTimpaniFrench HornRemember… the baroque basso continuo was no longer used after the introduction of the pianoforte or piano.
26 THEME AND VARIATIONSThe theme is a melody, a tune which is the main idea for a composition.In theme and variations, the theme may form a whole section of the composition.The variations occur when the main theme or tune is altered perhaps by adding extra notes, changing from major to minor or vice versa, changing harmony, rhythm, time signature, or when the theme is played in the bass, etc.
27 RONDOA B A C A. A form where the first section (A) comes back between contrasting sections.A B A C A D A
28 ROUND/CANONEach part sings or plays the same melody, entering one after the other. When they reach the end they start again, e.g. 'Three blind mice'.
29 Classical SymphonyThe classical symphony was derived from different forms from the Baroque era.It normally has 4 movements.It is a work for the whole orchestra.1st movement- usually fairly fast and in sonata form2nd movement – at a slower speed – usually in ternary or variation form3rd movement – either a minuet and trio or scherzo4th movement – the finale, usually fast and often in rondo or sonata formCoda - A passage at the end of a piece of music which rounds it off effectively.
30 Concerto Featuring a solo instrument and orchestra. It has three movements (fairly fast, slow, fast).Concludes with a cadenza where the player demonstrates their virtuosic playing ability.Mozart – Oboe Concerto in C MajorI: Allegro II: Adagio non troppo III: Rondo: Allegretto
31 CADENZAA passage of music which allows soloists to display their technical ability in singing or playing an instrument.Performers used to improvise cadenzas themselves but eventually composers began to write them into the score.
33 Piano MusicThe newly invented piano had more powers of expression than the harpsichord which offered exciting possibilities.As well as the dynamic possibilities, the piano was able to able to shape a melody in the right hand and accompany the melody quietly in the left.A favourite accompaniment style was alberti bass which consisted of broken chords repeated in the left hand keeping the music moving and outlining the harmonies.
35 Christoph Willibald Gluck OperaDuring the classical period opera was a form of entertainment.There were lots of composers of opera in the classical period but the main ones were:W.A. MozartJoseph HaydnGiovanni PaisielloDomenico CimarosaAntonio SalieriChristoph Willibald Gluck
36 What is an Opera?An opera is a play (or drama) set to music, and then acted and sung by singers accompanied by an orchestraAn opera is performed on stage, with scenery and costumes, lighting and stage effects. The story might be funny or serious or sometimes a mixture of both.Operas written in the classical period are normally written in French, Italian or German.The word of an opera are called a libretto. In some operas every word is sung while in others the musical items are linked together by spoken conversations between the characters.
37 How are the voices used in Opera? Before starting to write the music of an opera the composer gets to know the libretto (story) well.The composer then decides what type of voice would be best for each part.The composer then begins to write the music – which must match the story, and fit the words.
38 Syllabic and Melismatic SYLLABIC: Vocal music where each syllable is given one note only.MELISMATIC: Several notes sung to one syllable.
39 AriaA song in an opera, oratorio or cantata with orchestral accompaniment.