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The “Roaring Twenties” ( ) - Chapters 20-21

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2 The “Roaring Twenties” (1920-1929) - Chapters 20-21
Essential Questions: 1. Does Society cause government to change or does government cause society to change? 2. What should the role of the federal government be in the individual economic and social lives of Americans? 3. How does government respond to the changing needs of American society?

3 Unit Objectives: Objective Adjustment from wartime to a peacetime economy, government bureaucracy in the U.S., anti-immigration sentiment and the first Red Scare, restrictions on civil liberties during wartime, political changes in Europe, and the Near East impact of isolationism on American foreign policy. Objective The impact of presidential policies on economic activity (Harding, Coolidge, Hoover, and Roosevelt). Rise and/ or decline of major industries in the U.S., factors leading to the stock market crash and the onset of the Great Depression. Objective Consumer spending habit and trends, difficulties of farmers, response to prosperity: the stock market crash, Dust Bowl, Bonus Army march, and bank failures on various groups of the population. Objective The impact of mass media, public response to the Great Depression, the Harlem Renaissance, prohibition, and leisure time and spectator sports. Objective The “Back to Africa” movement and Pan-Africanism, the fundamentalist verses freethinking movement, religion in politics, and the changing role of women.

4 1920’s Key Vocabulary 18th Amendment/ Prohibition
Bessie Smith “Charleston” Dance Great Gatsby/ Fitzgerald The New Negro by Alaine Locke Steel Mill Strike Anarchists/ Reds Third Industrial Revolution Henry Ford Mass Production/ Assembly Line American Plan Consumerism Buying on credit Installment Plan demobilization Dawes Plan Four and Nine Power Pacts Lost Generation Route 66 Flappers Urban Sprawl 18th Amendment/ Prohibition Volstead Act speakeasies/ bootleggers organized crime/ mafia Al Capone Billy Sunday Election of 1920 Eugene Debs (socialist party) “Ohio Gang” Veterans Bureau/ Charles Forbes Herbert Hoover/ Sect. of Commerce Andrew Melon / Sect. of Treasury Harry Daugherty / Attorney General Tea Pot Dome Scandal (1921) – Albert Fall Dawes Plan Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922) Washington Conference (1921) Bureau of the Budget “Return to Normalcy Warren G. Harding ( ) Calvin Coolidge ( ) Herbert Hoover ( ) “Silent Cal” Election of 1924 “Man who builds a factory, builds a temple” Boston Police Strike (1919) Immigration Act/ National Origins Act (1924) Revenue Act (1926) Langston Hughes Louis Armstrong “Jazz Age” McNary-Haugen Bill o ( ) Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) Intervention in Nicaragua Bureau of Indian Affairs Clark Memorandum (1928) Scopes Monkey Trial (1925) Darwinism verses Fundamentalism Clarence Darrow Butler Act The “new woman” KKK emerges Pure Americanism Nativism Sacco and Vanzetti Case (1919) Birth of a Nation by D.W. Griffith Election of 1928 “Hooverizing” “Hoovervilles” “ A chicken in every pot, a car in every garage” Stock Market Crash – 10/29/29 Agricultural Marketing Act (1929) Young Plan (1929) Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act (1930) Great Migration Marcus Garvey/ Back to Africa Movement UNIA – Universal Negro Improvement Assoc. Ida Wells Harlem Renaissance James Weldon Johnson Claude McCay Duke Ellington

5 1920's Dress

6 I. The “Roaring Twenties” (1920-1929)
A. Republican Presidents 1. Warren G. Harding ( ) 2. Calvin Coolidge ( ) 3. Herbert Hoover ( ) - All 3 were conservative Presidents that encouraged a warm relationship between business and government. - Main goal was to help business and industry to operate with maximum efficiency and productivity. - Believed in high tariffs in order to benefit American businesses. - Gave tax breaks to the wealthy and big businesses – Trickle Down Theory. - Supported the idea of Isolationism and Demobilization – returning to peacetime living conditions after the war, and a decrease in military and national defense . B. A postwar recession would result from 1920 to Why?

7 1. War production in factories ceased. Led to layoffs.
2. At the same time, thousands of soldiers returned to enter the civilian labor force. 3. Soldiers could not find jobs, because many were filled by women. C. The recession would quickly end and result in one of the most prosperous decades in American history known as the “Roaring Twenties.” II. Warren G. Harding A. Biographical Information 1. Born in 1865 in Ohio (7). 2. His first job as a young teenager was as a printing press assistant at a small weekly newspaper in Ohio. 3. In 1879, he enrolled at a tiny Ohio Central College where he graduated in two years. 4. He tried his hand at selling insurance, studying law, and teaching school, but none of them held his interest.

8 5. He was more interested in hanging around with his friends, drinking, and playing poker.
6. A few years later, he and a few friends would buy a small-town newspaper operation called the Marion Star. 7. Within a few years, it had grown to be one of the most popular newspapers in central Ohio. It was very Pro-Republican in its ideas. 8. He married Florence “Flossie” Dewolfe. - She was very domineering, headstrong, and a nag according to Harding. - He never truly loved her and would have two long-running affairs that she never found out about. 9. He was very personable, and an active member in a number of organizations and clubs. 10. In 1898, he was elected to the Ohio State Senate. 11. In 1910, he was defeated while running for governor. 12. He returned to his newspaper to work for the next two years.

9 13. In 1914, he was elected to the U.S. Senate from Ohio.
- He did very little as Senator. He only showed up for about 50% of the Senate roll calls. 14. He was chosen by the Republican Party to run for President in the Election of 1920. - Harding (Rep.) – 404, James Cox (Dem.) – 127, Eugene Debs (While in prison) – 919,000/ Socialist Party - Calvin Coolidge was chosen as the V.P. 15. As President, he delegated much of his responsibilities to his subordinates and friends known as the “Ohio Gang.” - “I am a man of limited talents from a small town.” - His administration would be scandalized by corruption by his supposedly close friends who abused their positions. - He was unaware of the scandals, but when they were found out, they would greatly affect his health. 16. On a train trip to the West, he would become very ill. - He would return to the White House where he would die on August, 2, 1923. - He was said to have died from a stroke, but many believe that he might have been poisoned by his wife. She refused to allow an autopsy on his body.

10 B. Events 1. Harding’s campaign slogan was, “A return to normalcy.” 2. Ohio Gang – nickname to his closest advisors and cabinet members while he was President. Many of them were close friends from his home state of Ohio. - He was quoted as saying, “I have no trouble with my enemies… but my friends, they’re the ones that keep me walking the floor at nights.” - Charles Forbes – chosen to head the newly created Veterans Bureau. He would cheat the govt. out of millions of dollars by secretly selling govt. surplus supplies to private enterprises. He would resign and be sentenced to prison. - Herbert Hoover – appointed as Sect. of Commerce. One of the few who wasn’t considered corrupt. - Andrew Melon – appointed as the Sect. of Treasury. - Harry Daugherty – appointed Attorney General. He was the most corrupt of Harding’s appointments. He took bribes from bootleggers.

11 3. Tea Pot Dome Scandal (1921) - Harding’s Sect
3. Tea Pot Dome Scandal (1921) - Harding’s Sect. of the Interior, Albert Fall, illegally leased govt. oil fields to wealthy friends in exchange for bribe money. - One of these oil fields was located at Tea Pot Dome, Wyoming. Fall was convicted, fined, and imprisoned for bribery. 4. Fordney-McCumber Tariff of It raised tariffs on U.S. imports to 60 percent, the highest in the U.S. ever. - It helped protect U.S. businesses from foreign competition. - Special trade exemptions were made to Britain and France in order for them to repay their war debts. 5. Washington Conference for the Limitation of Armament ( ) - It ended the country’s costly naval defense race with G. Britain, Japan, France, and Italy with the destruction of existing weapons, including battleships. - Led by Sect. of State, Charles Evans Hughes. 6. Dawes Plan - a plan initiated by a wealthy banker named Charles Dawes to loan money to Germany so they could try to pay back the $30 billion owed to the allies. - Germany repaid France and Britain, and Britain and France repaid the U.S.

12 III. Calvin Coolidge (1922-1929) A. Biographical Information
After WWI, the allies had owed the U.S. $10 million in war debts. England and France resented the way the U.S. benefited so much from the war. 7. Bureau of the Budget - Established by Harding to help the govt. run more efficiently economically. A unified budget for the govt. was established for the first time.                                                          III. Calvin Coolidge ( ) A. Biographical Information 1. Born on Independence Day in 1872 in Vermont. 2. He was very a very social person. He was known as “Silent Cal.” Just the opposite of Harding. 3. He was the son of a hard-working shopkeeper. His Puritan upbringing instilled in him the virtues of hard-work, honesty, conservatism, and righteousness to God. 4. He wasn’t able to pass the entrance exam for Amherst College in Mass., so he spent a year at a preparatory school and was admitted in 1891.

13 6. He opened a law practice in Mass. Until 1919.
5. He graduated Cum Laude in 1895 and spent two years studying law in Mass. 6. He opened a law practice in Mass. Until 1919. 7. He married Grace Goodhue in She was a teacher at a Deaf School.                                                          8. He was elected to the Mass. State legislature in 1905. 9. He came from a working class background and related better to the average folks even though he was a Republican. This helped him carry many blue-collar Democratic votes. 10. He served in the State Senate from 1912 to He was elected President of the Senate in 1914. 11. He was elected Governor of Massachusetts in 1918. M. He was chosen as Harding’s Vice President in 1920. 12. Coolidge replaced Harding as the 30th President after Harding’s death in 1922. 13. Charles Dawes became his V.P. 14. He was elected in his own right in the Election of 1924.

14 15. Coolidge cleaned house within Harding’s cabinet after he took office, because of the many scandals. 16. Between , the stock market rose in the U.S. more than 200 percent and individual production rose by 26%. 17. He was very pro-business. He believed that the “man who builds a factory, builds a temple.” 18. He neglected the needs of the farmers in the West. Over ¼ of their farms had to be sold or foreclosed on because of unpaid debts. Why? Overproduction and plummeting prices of crops. 19. He did very little to advance the equality debate for blacks, and he was against segregation. 20. His Presidency was known for its inactivity. He did very little as President. He left the country to run itself. 21. He retired to Mass. After leaving office where he wrote his autobiography. 22. He died at his home in 1933 from a heart attack.

15 B. Events 1. Boston Police Strike (1919) – Coolidge was Governor of Mass. At the time, and he intervened sending in troops to dissolve the strike. - He was quoted as saying, “There is no right to strike against the public safety, by anybody, anytime.” - He was given credit for ending the strike and gained national attention that furthered his political career. 2. Election of He defeated the Dem. Candidate, John Davis and Progressive candidate, Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin. - He ran on the slogan, “Keep it Cool with Coolidge.” - He benefited from a booming and prosperous economy. 3. Immigration Act of 1924/ National Origins Act - supported by Coolidge. It banned Japanese immigration and slowed down the influx of Southern and Eastern Europeans setting quotas. - Coolidge believed that, “America must be kept American.” 4. Revenue Act (1926) - it reduced the basic income tax, cut the maximum tax to 20 %, it abolished the gift tax, and cut the estate tax in half.

16 5. McNary-Haugen Bill ( ) - It proposed to raise prices for basic farm products in order to help the struggling western farmers. - The govt. would buy and resell these products in the domestic market, and surplus products would be sold abroad for higher prices. - Coolidge vetoed and killed the Bill both times. 6. Flood Control Act (1928) - Coolidge reluctantly signed this Act appropriating $325 million for ten year program to construct levees along the Mississippi River because of devastating floods in 1927 wiping out many farms and crops. 7. Intervention in Nicaragua - American investment in Latin America nearly doubled during the 20’s. - Coolidge removed the Marines stationed there in 1925, but a revolution soon erupted and the marines had to return. - Revolutionary General Augusto Sandino, was overthrown by the Marines and replaced with an American-trained leader named Anastasio Somoza. The Somoza family ruled until 1979 when they were overthrown by the Sandinista rebels.

17 8. Indian Citizenship Act (1924) – the Bureau of Indian Affairs passed this act allowing for American Indians and Alaskan Natives the right to vote. 9. Clark Memorandum (1928) - written by Coolidge’s undersecretary, J. Reuben Clark. Stated that the U.S. has no right to use military force to intervene in Latin American Affairs. - It claimed that the Monroe Doctrine was based on conflicts of interest between the U.S. and European Nations, rather than between the U.S. and Latin American nations. - It repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary. It encouraged the new Isolationist Policy. 10. Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) - The U.S. and France, eventually joined by sixty other nations, renounced aggression and outlawed war. - Proposed by French foreign minister, Aristide Briand and the U.S. Sect. of State, Frank Kellogg. - It lacked any enforcement mechanisms. Did not prevent WWII.


19 IV. Prohibition (1919–1932) A. 18th Amendment – made alcohol illegal in the U.S. in 1919. B. Volstead Act - passed to help enforce the 18th Amendment. It stated that all alcoholic beverages that contained more than .5 % alcohol was illegal. C. Speakeasies - illegal clubs where liquor was being sold. D. Bootleggers - a person who smuggled alcoholic beverages into and throughout the U.S. during prohibition. E. Organized Crime/ Mafia - It was crime that was organized to make a profit off of the sale of illegal liquor. Rival gangs battled for control of the liquor business. F. Al Capone - The most famous Mafia leader, or gangster during the 1920’s. He controlled a network of speakeasies throughout Chicago that generated annual profits of $60 million. G. “Drys”- for prohibition and “Wets” – against prohibition. H. Billy Sunday - a former baseball player turned evangelist preacher. Most well-known evangelist of the 1920’s. He preached out against the evils of liquor pushing for prohibition.

20 Per Capita of Alcoholic Beverages (Gallons of Pure Alcohol) 1910-1929
The annual budget of the Bureau of Prohibition went from $4.4 million to $13.4 million during the 1920’s, while Coast Guard spending on Prohibition averaged over $13 million per year!

21 Inmates at Sing Sing Prison: 1917-22

22 V. Cultural Clashes A. Xenophobia - a fear of foreigners. B immigration (Johnson) quota act - As a result of this act the number of immigrants now allowed into America would be controlled. 1. It would be proportional ( 3 %) of the number of people from that country already in America in 1910. - Example: If there were 300,000 Eastern Europeans living in the U.S. in 1910, they would be allowed 3,000 for that year. C national origins act - As a result of this act the number of immigrants being allowed into America was reduced to 2% of the 1890 census. However particular nationalities had a higher intake such as English and Irish as there had been more of these groups in America during 1890. D. By 1929, America were only letting in 150,000 immigrants a year. These numbers were not to include Asians and 85% of the places ere to be allocated to northern and western Europeans.

23 Support for the Quota Act
1. Many Americans were unhappy with the Immigration Act of 1921 because they felt that it still admitted too many of the "wrong" kinds of foreigners.  To some extent, this attitude was a product of the times - Nativism.  2. The most extreme position was taken by the Ku Klux Klan.  The Klan was anti-black, anti-Catholic, anti-Jewish. They were against anybody who wasn’t white, Anglo Saxon or Protestant. With this in mind, it is no surprise that they lent their support to both Immigration Acts the KKK was strongest in the Midwestern states of the U.S. E. Pure (100%) Americanism - philosophy used by the KKK to make America a totally white and Christian nation.

24 F. Birth of a Nation – a controversial, racist film produced and written by D.W. Griffith in 1915 that dealt with Reconstruction and the KKK. It led to many race riots.





29 G. These acts of Nativism and Xenophobia led to events such as the Sacco and Vanzetti Trial in 1919.
H. Schenk verses U.S. Case (1919) - The Supreme Court upheld Charles Schenk’s conviction of Sedition for publishing anti-govt. literature saying: that under wartime conditions, the words in the leaflets were not protected by the first amendment’s right to free speech – Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes. I. Abrahms verses U.S. Case (1919) - 5 men were convicted of conspiring, printing, writing, and distributing seditious material. 1. All were born in Russia and anarchists. 2. The court ruled that their first amendment rights and Freedom of Speech was denied and found guilty. J. Red Scare - A panic that began in the U.S. in 1919 as a result of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. 1. A communist party had formed in the U.S., and the public began to fear a possible communist take-over in America.

30 K. Palmer Raids - Raids held by U. S
K. Palmer Raids - Raids held by U.S. Attorney General, Mitchell Palmer, to hunt down and arrest all possible communists and anarchists in the U.S. 1. He arrested 6,000 suspected radicals and anarchists. Many were put on a ship nicknamed the “Soviet Ark” and shipped to Russia to be dropped off. 2. Led to many innocent citizens being arrested and basic first amendments rights being violated. L. J. Edgar Hoover - He was chosen by Mitchell Palmer to head a new agency known as the Bureau of Investigation in It would later become the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) in He would deal forcefully with the problems of Prohibition. M. The “New Woman” - As a result of women going to work during WWI and the 20th Amendment giving them suffrage, their lives began to change in the 1920’s - “Flappers”, short hair, smokers, drinkers, more independent.

31 N. Because of the “liberal” changes in society and the spreading of “Materialism” during the twenties, many Christian Fundamentalists began to take a stand against the “sins” of the decade. - Billy Sunday O. Fundamentalists - Christians who believed in God and creationism, and the literal truth of the Bible word for word. P. Modernists - people who believed in the modern ways of life and liberal changes taking place. They also believed in Darwinism or evolution. Q. The Fundamentalists and Modernists would clash in the Scopes “Monkey Trial” in 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee. 2. John Scopes, a H.S. substitute science teacher, violated the Butler Act by refusing to stop teaching evolution in class. 3. He was arrested and supported by the ACLU in the case. 4. Clarence Darrow defended Scopes and W.J. Bryan defended the State of Tenn. 5. The Court ruled in favor of Fundamentalism over Darwinism in this case. Scopes was fined and the Butler Act upheld.

32 Darrow and Bryan John Scopes

33 VI. Herbert Hoover ( ) A. Biographical Information 1. He was born into a Quaker family in Iowa in * The first President ever to be born west of the Mississippi River. 2. His father and mother both died by the time he was 9 years of age, and he would be taken in by his uncle at age 10. 3. He attended a Quaker academy, but he never graduated from high school. 4. He was helped by a Quaker Mathematician to get into a new tuition-free college in Palo Alto, California as its first group of students. This college would later be known as Stanford. 5. He graduated in 1895 with a degree in Geology becoming Mining Engineer. 6. He received a job at a British mining firm and was placed in charge of its gold mining operations in Australia. 7. He got married to Lou Henry, a fellow student he met while attending Stanford.

34 8. He took a job in 1899 with the Chinese Engineering and Mining Company.
9. He and his wife were trapped in China when the Boxer Rebellion broke out in They fled from China soon after. 10. Hoover became one of the leading mining engineers in the world, and he became very wealthy as a result. 11. He was placed in charge of the Commission for Relief in Belgium (CRB) during WWI. 12. He became well known during his life for his humanitarian efforts throughout the world. 13. He was chosen by President Wilson to be the U.S. Food Administrator after the U.S. entered WWI in 1917, 14. He established “Hooverizing” – a program to conserve food during the war. One example was, “Meatless Mondays.” 15. He organized the European Children’s Fund to serve the orphaned children throughout Europe. 16. In 1921, Harding chose Hoover to be his Sect. of Commerce.

35 17. He was chosen by the Republican Party to run for President in the Election of He easily won defeating the Democratic Candidate, Al Smith (Roman Catholic from N.Y.) 444 to 87. 18. Hoover became our 31st President in 1921 as a Republican. 19. Hoover refused to accept a salary during his Presidency. 20. His campaign slogan in the Election of 1828 was, “A chicken in every pot, a car in every garage.” 21. The Stock Market Crash of Oct. 29, 1929 and the Great Depression that followed would consume and taint his Presidency. 22. He was blamed for the problems and would be easily defeated in the Election of 1932 by FDR. 23. He lived to be 90 years of age and died in 1964. B. Events 1. Agricultural Marketing Act (1929) - It aided farmers by establishing marketing organizations, and it also arranged for corporations to buy surpluses off the market to wait for higher prices.

36 2. Young Plan (1929) - It was presented by Owen D. Young.
- It became apparent that Germany could not meet the huge annual payments set up by the Dawes Plan of 1924. - This plan set the total reparations at $26, 350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58 ½ years. This plan was adopted by the Allies in 1930 to supercede the Dawes Plan. 3. Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act (1930) - It raised agricultural duties to the highest peacetime tariff in the nation’s history. - It was designed to help American farmers and manufacturers from foreign competition. - This hurt international trade, because other countries did the same to us in return. 4. Stock Market Crash of Oct. 29, 1929 – This event sparked the beginning of the Great Depression that would leave millions of unemployed and a nation in turmoil. Known as “Black Tuesday.” - Hoover seemed to believe that the crisis would pass if we just waited it out, but his inactivity to solve it proved to be his downfall.


38 - He believed that aid to the unemployed and the poor should be handled by local governments and by private charities, not by the Federal Government. 5. Causes of the Great Depression: - Overspending, and very little put into savings. - Over-producing of goods that led to low prices. - High tariffs and war debt policies cut down on the foreign market for American goods. - A crisis in the farm sector. Huge debts that could not be repaid because of the low prices of farm goods. - The availability of easy credit. Too much money in circulation, not enough money in the banks. - The government did not adapt to the economic changes. They did not slow down spending by raising interest rates and taxes. - Many people began buying stocks on Margin - paying a small percentage of a stock’s price as a down payment and borrowing the rest. When the stock market took a plunge, many investors quickly sold their stocks causing the prices of the stocks to drop.

39 - The Stock Market panic led to “Bank Runs” where people ran to their banks trying to withdraw all of their money. - Unfortunately, their wasn’t enough money in the banks to give to all the people leading thousands of banks to collapse. VII. The New Negro A. The Great Migration from the South ( ) - thousands of African Americans from the South moved to the northern cities to escape racial discrimination and to work in the factories. B. Marcus Garvey - Jamaican immigrant who pushed for more “black pride” and the determination of blacks to build a separate society. He formed the UNIA – United Negro Improvement Association. - Garvey also pushed for the “Back to Africa” movement for African Americans to return to Africa and their roots. C. Ida Wells - she was a newspaper editor who led a crusade against the lynching (mob hanging) of blacks.

40 D. Harlem Renaissance - a literary and artistic movement led by well-educated, middle class African Americans who expressed a new pride in the African American experience. 1. Harlem became the world’s largest black urban community. 2. James Weldon Johnson described Harlem as the capital of black America. E. James Weldon Johnson - an African American poet, lawyer, and executive secretary of the NAACP. He pushed for legislation to protect African American rights. F. Claude McCay – an African American novelist and poet of Jamaican descent. He urged blacks to resist prejudice and discrimination. G. Langton Hughes - The 20’s most well-known black poet. His poems described the difficult lives of the working class African Americans. H. Louis Armstrong – the most famous Black Jazz trumpet player of the 1920’s.

41 I. “Jazz Age” - began in New Orleans and spread to Kansas City to Chicago to Harlem. A new style of upbeat music that mixed ragtime and blues. Name was coined by F. Scott Fitzgerald. 1. The most famous Jazz club was in Harlem - the “Cotton Club.” J. Duke Ellington - a famous black jazz pianist and composer of the 1920’s. He led a Jazz orchestra. K. Bessie Smith - the most famous black female blues singer of the 1920’s. She became the paid black performer in the world. L. “Charleston” Dance - the dance craze of the 20’s. It was an energetic dance that involved wild flailing movements of the arms and legs. M. Great Gasby - a novel written by F. Scott Fitzgerald that revealed the negative side of the 1920’s. He portrayed the wealthy and attractive people leading imperiled lives in gilded surroundings. N. The New Negro - an essay written in 1925 by Alain Locke that described the transformation of the “New Negro” that was emerging in America.

42 VIII. Labor Unrest A. Boston Police Strike (1919) - Gov. Coolidge B. Steel Mill Strike (1919) – 300,000 steel workers walked off their jobs around the U.S. to get better working conditions. 1. Strikers were beaten by police, federal troops, and state militia because they thought many of the workers were linked to communists. 2. The conflict ended in 1923 with workers on getting an 8 hour workday, and the union was dissolved. C. Anarchists/ Reds - were people who disagreed with the government in the U.S. and were interested in overthrowing or replacing in with Communism. IX. Economics A. The Third Industrial Revolution was taking place in the U.S. after WWI. B. Henry Ford’s Model T and Assembly line had a big impact on the changing society of the 1920’s.

43 C. Farming were facing serious agricultural problems brought on by huge debts and low crop prices brought on by over-production. D. Labor Unrest was taking place throughout America because of disgruntled workers trying to get better working conditions. E. Mass Production led to an overabundance of goods. F. Prosperity and Innovation was ignited as a result of WWI. G. American Plan – plans used by businesses to destroy unions. They used Yellow Dog Contracts – workers were forced to sign these agreeing not to join a union to get hired. 1. Welfare Capitalism – programs used by employers to convince workers to not join unions ( glee clubs, sports teams, dental and health programs). H. Consumerism - the buying of consumer goods to demonstrate your success in society. I. Buying on Credit led to overspending and huge debts. J. Installment Plan – the method of making payments on a purchase of a period of time to pay it off.

44 K. Advertising- became a popular way to sell products across the United States. Magazines such as Time, Reader’s Digest, and Saturday Evening Post became popular. X. Diplomacy and Foreign Affairs A. Demobilization was taking place in the U.S. after the war to transition to peacetime conditions and isolationism. B. Disarmament Conferences took place after WWI to rid all countries of “unnecessary” war weapons (Washington Conference). C. Dawes Plan – gave a loan to Germany to help them repay the Allies who would then repay the U.S. D. Young Plan – readjusted the Dawes Plan to make repaying the loans easier for Germany. E. Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) – made war illegal. F. Four and Nine Power Acts - Four-Power Pact (December 13, 1921). The major Allied powers — Britain, France, Japan and the United States — agreed to submit disputes among themselves over Pacific issues to a conference for resolution.

45 - Nine-Power Treaty (February 6, 1922)
- Nine-Power Treaty (February 6, 1922). The Big Four, plus Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal and China — endorsed the Open Door Policy and pledged mutual respect for Chinese territorial integrity and independence G. Clark Memorandum - Stated that the U.S. has no right to use military force to intervene in Latin American Affairs. XI. Entertainment and Sports A. The Jazz Singer - The first major movie with sound in 1927. B. Steamboat Willie - The first animated film with sound/ Walt Disney (1928). C. Farewell to Arms - a book that denounced the glorification of war written by Ernest Hemingway. D. Silver Screen/ Silent Movies became the most popular form of entertainment during the 20’s. E. Charles Lindbergh - nicknamed “Lucky Lindy.” He became the first person to fly solo completely across the Atlantic Ocean from New York to Paris. His plane was named the “Spirit of St. Louis.”

46 F. Babe Ruth – a famous baseball player of the 1920’s.
G. Red Grange - famous running back from the University of Illinois during the 20’s. Known as the “Galloping Ghost.” H. Black Sox Scandal (1919) - I. Knute Rockne - the famous college football coach from Notre Dame during the 20’s. J. Jack Dempsey - a famous boxer of the 20’s. K. Bobby Jones - a famous golfer of the 20’s. XII. Mass Culture and Society A. Lost Generation ’s intellectuals who wrote about the America’s obsession with material possessions. Coined by Gertrude Stein to refer to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris from the time period which saw the end of World War I to the beginning of the Great Depression. B. Radio, Movies, and dancing were the favorite forms of entertainment of the 20’s. C. New Fads swept throughout the U.S. during the 20’s such as dancing, and human daring feats ( flag pole sitting).

47 D. The automobile culture took over America
D. The automobile culture took over America. Many citizens could now afford cars because of buying on credit. 1. Led to the building of thousands of miles of roads and interstate highways. The most famous was Route 66 from Chicago to California. 2. Led to the “white flight” of Americans moving to the suburbs to escape the problems of inner-cities. 3. Led to car dating and a rise in teen pregnancies. E. Flappers – the nickname given to the 20’s women. The type of loose fitting dress worn by women. F. Urban sprawl - the outward expansion of cites or creating suburbs. G. There was a very big role change for women during the 20’s - new clothing, new haircuts, more educated, more professional jobs, more independent, the right to vote.

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