2 The present tense of porto meaning I carry - All the grammatical terms so far discussed apply to Latin as well as they do to English.The present tense of porto meaning I carry -Number Singular Plural1st porto – I carry portamus – we carry2nd portas – you carry portatis – you carry3rd portat – he, she it carries portant – they carryNote that the English pronouns – I, you, he etc do not appear in the Latin as separate words. Instead they are contained in the ending of the verb. So the ending o means I; as – you (singular); at – he, she, it etc. The port part of the verb (the stem) is the bit that means carry.
3 CONJUGATIONS Other 1st conjugation verbs include - Servo – I save Latin verbs are arranged into different groups according to the endings they use. These groups are called conjugations, and there are five conjugations.Porto is a first conjugation verb. All first conjugation verbs use the same endings as each other – so they all use the endings – o (I), as (you s), at (he, she or it), amus (we), atis (you pl) and ant (they) – when forming the present tense.Other 1st conjugation verbs include -Servo – I saveNeco – I killParo – I prepareAmbulo – I walkOppugno – I attackAmo – I love
4 Analysis of Verbs Portant = 3rd person plural = They carry Necas = 2nd person singular =You (s) killAmbulamus =1st person plural =We walkParat =3rd person singular =He, she or it preparesServatis =2nd person plural =You (pl) saveOppugno =1st person singular =I attackAmant =3rd person plural =They love, like
5 NounsLike verbs, Latin nouns also have endings. These endings indicate the number (singular / plural) of the noun, and also the role that the noun plays in the sentence – i.e. whether the noun is the subject or the object of the sentence.Again like the verbs, Latin nouns belong to different groups. These groups are called declensions. A noun will use particular endings according to the declension it belongs to.There are five declensions. However, for the sake of simplicity only the first two declensions will be looked at here.
6 The First DeclensionFirst declension nouns such as puella, meaning girl, use the following endings –puellaThe a ending is used when the noun is singular and the subject of the sentencepuellamThe ending am is used when the noun is singular and the object of the sentence.puellaeThe ending ae is used when the noun is plural and the subject of the sentence.puellasThe ending as is used when the noun is plural and the object of the sentence.
7 The Second DeclensionSecond declension nouns such as servus, meaning slave, use the following endings.servusThe ending us is used when the noun is singular and the subject of the sentence.servumThe ending um is used when the noun is singular and the object of the sentence.serviThe ending i is used when the noun is plural and the subject of the sentence.servosThe ending os is used when the noun is plural and the object of the sentence.
8 CasesWhen a noun is carrying out a particular function in a sentence, such as being the subject or the object, it will be in one of a number of cases.When a noun is the subject it will in what is called the nominative case. When the noun is the object it will be in the accusative case.Therefore a, us, ae and i are nominative case endings.And am, um, as and os are accusative case endings.