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Welcome to Anatomy & Physiology I

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1 Welcome to Anatomy & Physiology I

2 Syllabus Grades Assignments and Tests – should be turned in on time
25% homework 25% exams 25% final exam 25% participation Assignments and Tests – should be turned in on time 1 week late 75% 2 weeks late 50% 3 weeks late 25% 4 weeks late - NO Credit

3 Chapter 1 Language of Anatomy
Biology – study of life Anatomy – Greek word for “a cutting open” Study of structure (morphology) of body parts, their forms and how they are organized Physiology – Study of the functions of body parts, what they do, how they do it and why these functions occur Structure of our body make the functions possible. Hands grasp, mouth opens for food, heart pumps blood

4 Levels of Organization
Atoms Molecules Macromolecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organism

5 Molecules – more than one atom
Atoms – microscopic particles that join to form molecules – the smallest unit of measure Molecules – more than one atom Macromolecules – very large molecules Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

6 Cells – the basic unit of structure and function
Microscopic Vary in shape, size and special functions Contain organelles Carry out specific activities Composed of proteins, carbs, lipids and nucleic acids Tissues – organized cells the have common functions

7 Organs – groups of tissues that perform specialized functions
Stomach, heart, lungs Organ systems – organs function closely together cardiovascular system, digestive system, respiratory system….

8 Organism

9 Overview

10 Traits of all living organisms
Responsiveness Property of Irritability: the body always responds to any changes within the body Property of Adaptability: the body can make long term changes Growth: from the moment of fertilization, all cells grow and become specialized Reproduction Digestion: breakdown of food by the body into nutrients Respiration: exchange of O2 and CO2 Circulation: of nutrients and O2 to body parts Metabolism – all chemical processes in the body Absorption: of nutrients and O2 Assimilation: changing nutrients into chemicals the body can use Excretion: removal of harmful waste produced by the body

11 Requirements to maintain life

12 Homeostasis

13 Homeostasis The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment in an organism All body functions operate within very narrow limits Human body has control systems: Receptors: provide info about certain conditions in the internal environment Set Point: what the particular value should be (body temperature) Effectors: cause responses that change conditions in the internal environment

14 How it works Negative Feedback (corrects deviations)
Receptors sense a deviation from set point and effectors work to return body to set point Ex. Too hot, body sweats to lower body temp Too cold, we shiver Positive Feedback (intensifies response) Receptors sense that the body needs more power and the effectors respond by increasing or strengthening what is happening Ex. Child birth, increases strength of uterine contractions

15 Organization of the Body

16 Body Cavities Dorsal Body Cavity (filled with fluid)
Includes cranial and vertebral cavity Ventral Body Cavity (filled with air) Includes thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities Thoracic Cavity Contains pericardial cavity Divided into 2 compartments by the mediastinum (contains heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea & thymus) Separates R and L pleural cavities Abdominal Cavity (* diaphragm) Viscera: stomach, liver, spleen, gallbadder, kidneys, most of sm/lg intestines Pelvic Cavity Viscera: end of lg intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs Air filled cavities are able to change shape and size. Ex. Stomach, heart, lungs,

17 Smaller Cavities Oral Cavity Nasal Cavity Orbital Middle Ear

18 Membrane Linings Parietal Linings – membranes that are attached to the wall of a cavity ex. Parietal pleural (thoracic cavity) Visceral Linings – membranes covering an internal organ ex. Visceral peritoneum (abdominal viscera) These linings are separated by a thin film of watery fluid called serous fluid

19 Potential Space Pleural Cavity – filled with lungs
Pericardial Cavity – filled with the heart Peritoneal Cavity – filled with abdominal viscera

20 Organ Systems

21 Integumentary System Body Covering Hair, finger & toe nails Skin
Protects underlying tissues Helps to regulate body temp Contains many receptors Mechanical defense

22 Support and Movement Skeletal System Muscular System
Bones, ligaments, cartilage Provides framework for the body Protects soft tissue Stores minerals Produces blood cells Muscular System Muscles Provide forces that move body parts Main source of body heat Support internal organs

23 Integration & Coordination
Nervous System Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs Communicate with each other: Send out and receive nerve impulses Act as receptors Stimulate other systems of the body to react Directs immediate response Endocrine system Hypothalamus (brain), pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, thymus Secrete chemical messengers called hormones Long term changes

24 Transport responsible for transporting substances thru the internal environment
Cardiovascular System Heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, blood Transports: Nutrients, wastes, blood cells and O2 Lymphatic System Lymph vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen Defends: Against infections and provides immunity to the body

25 Absorption & Excretion
Digestive System Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, sm/lg intestines Receive food, breakdown the food for absorption,eliminates waste Respiratory System Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs Moves air in and out, gas exchange between blood and air Urinary System Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra Removes waste from blood, helps maintain electrolyte balance Eliminates excess H20, salts and wastes

26 Reproduction Reproductive System – reproduces a whole new organism
Female – ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva Male – scrotum, testes, epididymis, ductus deferens, eminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis, urethra

27 Anatomical Terminology
Anatomical position Upright Facing forward Arms at sides Palms facing forward *anatomical position is used when describing the relative positions of the body parts Supine – lay down, face up Prone – lay down, face down

28 Positions relate to imaginary planes where cuts might be made
Superior – above or toward the head Inferior – below or toward the feet Anterior/ventral – toward the front Posterior/dorsal – toward the back Medial – toward imaginary midline (divides body into equal R and L halves) Lateral – away from imaginary midline, toward the side Bilateral, ipsilateral, contralateral Proximal – closer to the point of attachment to the trunk Distal – opposite to proximal, point further away from attachment to the trunk than another body part Superficial – near the surface Deep – more internal than superficial parts

29 Planes Sagittal – lengthwise plane that divides the body into R/L portions Midsagittal – Sagittal plane that divides the body into equal L/R halves Transverse – plane that divides the body into superior & inferior parts Coronal (frontal) – plane that divides the body into anterior & posterior parts

30 Body Regions Epigastric – upper middle
L/R hypochondriac –L & R of epigastric Umbilical – belly button area L/R Lumbar – L & R of umbilical region Hypogastric – lower middle L/R Iliac – L & R of hypogastric

31 4 Abdominal Quadrants Used to describe where abdominal pain is located
Right Upper (RUQ) Left Upper (LUQ) Right Lower (RLQ) Left Lower (LLQ)

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