Presentation on theme: "Century of Conflict 1 st half of 20 th century… WWI, WWII, Cold War… giant wars, global in scale. Later half marked by regional conflicts – often over."— Presentation transcript:
Century of Conflict 1 st half of 20 th century… WWI, WWII, Cold War… giant wars, global in scale. Later half marked by regional conflicts – often over religion.
Contributing to more intense religious conflict has been a resurgence of fundamentalism, which is a literal interpretation and a strict & intense adherence to basic principles of a religion. As adherents of one religion, who are convinced they are right, may spatially intrude upon territory controlled by other groups. In addition, religious groups often oppose government policies seen as promoting social change conflicting with traditional religious values. Religious Conflict
The Big Question: Can secular society exist alongside traditional and fundamentalist religious sects and states? American evangelical Christianity and Islamic fundamentalism are the two most influential fundamentalist movements in the world.
RELIGION VS SOCIAL CHANGE People in LDC’s are increasingly opposed to values originating in N Am and Eur. Many people view our values as incompatible with local religions.
Hinduism vs. Social Change Hinduism has been strongly challenged since the 1800s when the British introduced their social and moral concepts to India. The most vulnerable aspect was the caste system, which was the class order to which a Hindu was assigned based on their birth.
The caste system originated around 1500 BC. There were 4 castes and below were the untouchables. Until recently, the 5 classes has limited interaction with each other and the rights of the non-upper class were limited. The British pointed out the shortcomings of the system and it was eventually relaxed. The untouchable caste was eventually abolished and they now have equal rights.
RELIGION VS COMMUNISM Organized religion was challenged by the rise of communism in E Eur and Asia. 3 most affected religions = Eastern Orthodox, Islam, Buddhism.
Eastern Orthodox vs Soviet Union After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, the communist government in Russia pursued anti- religious programs. They felt religion was a threat to the success of the revolution. Churches were opened only with the approval of local government. Most young people abandoned religion all together. The end of communism has created a religious revival and church attendance has increased substantially in Russia and former Soviet Union.
Vladimir Lenin, Leader of the Bolshevik Revolution
Buddhism vs. SE Asian Countries Hurt by the long Vietnam War (1946-75). Neither side, communists or US/France were sympathetic to the Buddhists. The current communist governments have discouraged religious activities by controlling it.
RELIGION VS RELIGION Conflict is most likely to occur where the colors change… 2 most longstanding conflicts are in the Middle East and Northern Ireland Figure 6-1 in textbook
Religious Wars in the Middle East Conflicts in the ME are the longest running in the world and have no end in sight. Jews, Muslims, and Christians have fought for 2,000 years for a small strip of land in the Eastern Mediterranean. All three have strong attachments and legitimate claims to the land… stems from a similar heritage traced back to Abraham.
As an ethnic religion, Judaism makes a special claim b/c major events of it’s history took place there. Jerusalem is especially holy to the Jews b/c it was their first center of worship. Were forced to leave by the Romans around 70 AD. Most people remaining after the Diaspora of Jews accepted Christianity. Christians consider Palestine the Holy Land and Jerusalem as the Holy City b/c of Jesus’ life, death, and Resurrection. Muslims consider Jerusalem as their 3 rd holiest city. Dome of the Rock Mosque = site where Muhammad ascended into heaven.
A Simple Middle East Timeline with an emphasis on Jewish history 70 AD – Jews expelled from homeland by Romans. 7 th Century – Muslims capture most of ME. 1099 – Crusades begin to reclaim Holy Land from Muslims. 1516-1917 – Ottoman Empire controls lands including Palestine. Controlled by Britain after 1917. 1930’s – Some Jew’s return to Israel (Zionist Movement)
1948 – Israel created 1948 to Present – series of wars and violence between Israel and Palestine. Wars in 1948, 1956, 1967, 1973. Israel won all 4 wars. Present – Palestine divided into Gaza Strip and West Bank. Continuing violence with no end in sight.
Do not write Current incursion into Gaza is to stop rocket fire on Israel fired from Gaza by Hamas militants. Unofficially, Israel is attempting to either defeat Hamas or convince people to oust Hamas. Photos taken 1/6/09 and found on washingtonpost.com
Other Religious Conflict Hot Zones Lebanon – divided between several religious groups, especially Christians and Muslims. Each group has traditionally lived in their own area. Civil war in 1975. US, Israel, and Syria all sent troops to stop the fighting. Lebanon controlled by Syria up to about 10 years ago.
Northern Ireland The Republic of Ireland occupies 5/6ths of Eire (the island) and is a Roman Catholic country, but the Northern 1/6 th of Eire is part of the UK and is Protestant. Ireland = colony of Great Britain until 1937, but Northern Ireland voted to stay with the UK. There has been much violence due to… Catholics wishing to reunify with Ireland and Protestants wanting to stay with the UK. 3500 deaths since 1968. Irish Republican Army is Catholic and wants to reunify N Ireland with Ireland according to any means necessary, but has backed off since 9/11.