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Civilization: Case Study of Ur in Sumer

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1 Civilization: Case Study of Ur in Sumer
Chapter 1 Section 3

2 I Villages Grow into Cities
Agriculture allowed nomadic people to make permanent settlements & organize agricultural communities Farming & invention of tools made daily work easier  allowed communities to support more peoplecaused populations to rise From these villages emerges cities together with more complex social relationships

3 A. Economic Changes Ancient people built irrigation systems to produce extra crops Extra food freed up people to pursue other jobs and develop other skills

4 Craftspeople began making products like pottery, woven cloth, & metal objects
Traders profited from exchanging these products, grain, and raw materials

5 These most important inventions allowed for transportation of goods across long distances

6 B. Social Changes Large irrigation systems require cooperation & labor of many in the village Groups of workers formed social classes with different wealth, power, & influence emerged As cities grow, social classes would be clearly defined

7 Religion becomes more organized
Old Stone Age religioin centers around nature, animal spirits, & afterlife New Stone Age saw people worshiping gods & goddesses who had power over forces of nature City dwellers develop rituals around these beliefs

8 II What is Civilization?
Civilization= complex culture with 5 Characteristics: Advanced cities Specialized workers Complex institutions Record keeping Advanced technology

9 A. Advanced Cities Ur City is not determines by a large population but by the fact that it is the center of trade for a larger area Like todays city residents, they depended on trade and developed goods of their own

10 B. Specialized Workers As cities grow, so does the need for specialized workers Food surplus allowed opportunity for cultivating skills and specialization of work Specialization= development of skills in specific kind of work Artisans= skilled workers who made goods by hand Made jewelry, tools, weapons, etc. which helped make cities the center of trade

11 C. Complex Institutions
Growing population made institutions like gov’t necessary Government= a system of ruling Institution= a long lasting pattern of organization in a community Religion became a formal institution with building of large temples Sumerians believed every city belonged to a god that lived in the temple and governed the cities activities Temples became city’ economic center

12 D. Record Keeping As institutions became complex people needed to keep records Tex collections, laws, grain storage Most civilizations developed system of writing Sumerian scribes, or professional record keepers, invented a form of writing called cuneiform

13 Cuneiform means “wedge shaped”
Ealier wumerian writing consisted of pictographs Pictographs= symbols of the objects or things they represented Scribe used stylus to press into wet clay tablets Tablets dried in sun to preserve writing Eventually used writing to keep accounts of wars, natural disasters, kings

14 The beginning of civilization in Sumer also signaled the beginning of written history

15 E. Advanced Technology Farmers began to use power of animals and nature Ox drawn plows to turn soil Created irrigation system Artisans used technology such as the 1st potter’s wheel

16 Sumerian workers also discovered that melting copper & tin made a stronger metal called bronze
Bronze Age= the time when people began using bronze rather than copper and stone to make tools and weapons

17 III Civilizations Emerge in Ur
Ur, one of the earliest cities in Sumer, is locate din modern day Iraq Ur was flourishing city in which people lived in well defined social classes

18 A. An Agricultural Economy
Ox driven plows cultivate fieldirrigation ditches carry water into fields from resovoir miles away

19 B. UR’s Thriving Trade People in Ur do not use coines because they were not yet invented People barter Barter=the way of tradeing goods and services without money

20 The Temple: Center of City Life
Ziggurat= massive pyramid shaped monument within the temple gates Temple houses storage areas for grains, fabrics, & gems

21 D. A Religious Ritual Recorded
Cuneiform tablets reveal Sumerian burial rituals and beliefs in afterlife Foods mentioned in rituals suggest they grew wide range of crops Ur is model of first early cities Others were prospering in other civilizations in Egypt, China, & other countries

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