2 In the early 1900s, Russia was in an appalling state of poverty while the Csar lived in luxury. There was tremendous dissatisfaction.
3 Czar Nicholas II A poor leader at best, compared to western leaders Cruel - sometimes brutal with opponentsHad unarmed protesters murdered in the streets in 1905.Exiled before he and his entire family were brutally assassinatedCzar Nicholas IINicholas desperately wanted to go into exile in the United Kingdom following his abdication. The British government initially offered him asylum in England, but this was overruled by King George V who, acting on the advice of his secretary Lord Stamfordham, was worried that Nicholas' presence in the UK might provoke an uprising. In August 1917, the Kerensky government evacuated the Romanovs to Tobolsk in the Urals, allegedly to protect them from the rising tide of revolution. There they lived in the former Governor's Mansion in considerable comfort. In October 1917, however, the Bolsheviks seized power from Kerensky's Provisional Government; Nicholas followed the events in October with interest but as yet no alarm. He continued to underestimate Lenin's importance but already began to feel that his abdication had done Russia more harm than good. In the meantime he and his family occupied themselves with keeping warm. Conditions of imprisonment became more strict, and talk of putting Nicholas on trial grew more frequent. The Tsar was forbidden to wear epaulettes and the sentries scrawled lewd drawings on the fence to offend his daughters. On 1 March 1918, the family was placed on soldier's rations, which meant parting with ten devoted servants and giving up butter and coffee as luxuries. What kept the family's spirits up was the belief that help was at hand. The Romanovs believed that various plots were underway to break them out of captivity and smuggle them to safety. But on 30 April 1918 they were transferred to their final destination: the town of Yekaterinburg, where they were imprisoned in the two-story Ipatiev House, the home of the military engineer Nikolay Nikolayevich Ipatiev, which ominously became referred to as the 'house of special purpose'. On the night of 16/17 July 1918, the royal family was awakened around 2:00 am, told to dress, and led down into a half-basement room at the back of the Ipatiev house; the pretext for this move was the family's safety - that anti-Bolshevik forces were approaching Yekaterinburg, and the house might be fired upon. Present with Nicholas, Alexandra and their children were their doctor, and four of their servants, who had voluntarily chosen to remain with the family - the Tsar's personal physician Eugene Botkin, his wife's maid Anna Demidova, and the family's chef, Ivan Kharitonov, and footman, Alexei Trupp. A firing squad had been assembled and was waiting in an adjoining room, composed of seven Communist soldiers from Central Europe, and three local Bolsheviks, all under the command of Bolshevik officer Yakov Yurovsky (the soldiers are often described as Hungarians; in his account, Yurovsky described them as "Latvians"). Nicholas was carrying his son; when the family arrived in the basement, the former empress complained that there were no chairs for them to sit in. Yurovsky ordered chairs brought in, and when the empress and the heir were seated, the executioners filed into the room. Yurovsky announced to them that they had been condemned to death by the Ural Soviet of Workers' Deputies. A stunned Nicholas asked, "What? What?" and turned toward his family. Accounts differ on whether Yurovsky quickly repeated the order or whether he simply shot the former emperor outright. One witness among the several who later wrote accounts of Nicholas's last moments reported that the Tsar said, "You know not what you do," paraphrasing Jesus's words on the cross.The executioners drew revolvers and the shooting began. Nicholas was the first to die; Yurovsky shot him multiple times in the chest (not to the head as said, since his skull was unscathed when they discovered it in 1991). Anastasia, Tatiana, Olga, and Maria survived the first hail of bullets; the sisters were wearing over 1.3 kilograms of diamonds and precious gems sewn into their clothing, which provided some initial protection from the bullets and bayonets. They were stabbed with bayonets and then shot at close range in the head.An official announcement appeared in the national press two days later, announcing the killing of the Tsar, but not of his family, in Yekaterinburg. It declared that the monarch had been executed on the order of the Presidium of the Ural Regional Soviet, because the approach of the anti-Bolshevik Czechoslovak Legions in the area posed a danger that the Romanovs might be freed. According to The File on the Czar by Tom Mangold it was Lenin who gave the order to execute the Romanov royal family
4 Karl Marx – The Father of Communism believed that the privateownership of land must be abolishedBelieved in “Communal” way of life where everyone shares in prosperity“Workers of the world unite", take over gov'tDied before Russian RevolutionMarx's criticism focused on the dominant political and economic system of his time, known as "capitalism." Germany, the United States, and England were powerful nations that lived under this system, and they were exporting it--sometimes by force--over the face of the globe. Capitalism encourages competition between its citizens, and provides rewards in an unequal way. Capitalist nations defended this distribution of goods on the grounds that the factory owners had often taken risks, or mastered skills, that the meat-packer had not. Therefore, the factory owner deserved the extra benefitsThe capitalist nations, he argued, allowed the wealthy few to amass huge fortunes, while the numerous poor toiled in unsafe factories for low wages, lived in wretched filth, and died before their time. Worse still, the rich denied equal opportunity to the poor, hoarding goods and reserving advantages like education and health care for themselves. Vast mansions existed alongside tenement-houses; in the one, every possible luxury could be found and every need was met, while next door whole families stuffed themselves into single rooms and ate meager rations. How could it be fair that the wealthy few had extra millions in the bank, while the masses struggled to survive, or starved to death?Marx spoke of the dawning of a new social order based on the equal distribution of wealth and possessions among a nation's citizenry. In such a society, Marx theorized, tranquil relations would prevail between all men and women, and age-old problems like poverty, ignorance, and starvation would vanish. The rich would be compelled to yield their surplus to the poor, and individuals would produce according to their abilities, and consume according to their needs. Everyone would have what they needed, and no one citizen would possess more than another.Casting his eye back across the arc of history, he asserted that in every era the same fundamental conflict emerged: The few well-placed and powerful sought to maintain their wealth by actively suppressing the natural desires of the many poor. These cruel circumstances were hard to change because the rich had no reason to share, and possessed the means by which to control the impoverished masses. The sheer numbers of the downtrodden represented a definitive advantage, however, and a declaration of war on their part would resolve the dispute. Marx took the view that it was the destiny of history itself that this battle should take place, and that the victorious poor would usher in an age of justice and equality.
5 Communism All people equal Government owns everything and people own government
6 Lenin adopted Marx’s ideas. believed that the bourgeoisie (middle class) exploited the workers and must therefore be overthrown.understood the emotional impact of simple, powerful slogans like “workers of the world unite”Changed Russia’s name to the USSR
7 Lenin DiesWhen Lenin died, there was a power struggle between Trotsky and Stalin.It is believed that Lenin ordered the murder of Nicholas II and his family
8 Leon TrotskyOne of the leaders of "October Revolution“ with Lenin and Stalin which overthrew the government in Oct 1917.Believed in “pure” communism (Marx)was a brilliant speakerfavored world revolution.Wanted to improve life for all in RussiaChased away by Lenin's KGB (Lenin's secret police)
9 Joseph Stalin Stalin continually opposed Trotsky Average speaker, not educated like TrotskyDidn't exactly follow Marx's ideasCraved power, willing to kill for itUsed KGB, allowed church, and propagandizedBenefited from the fact that education was controlled
10 Propaganda Department of Stalin’s government Worked for Stalin to support his imageLied to convince the people to follow Stalin
11 Not really police, but forced all to support Stalin KGB - Secret PoliceNot really police, but forced all to support StalinUsed force, often killed entire families for disobedienceTotally loyal, part of Lenin's power, even over army
12 ReligionMarx said religion was the "Opiate of the people" and a lieUsed to make people not complain and do their workReligion was tolerated because people would work and not complainStalin knew religion would stop violent revolutions
13 Bourgeoisie (Middle Class) some people didn't care about revolution because it made their lives harderonly though about themselveswent to other countries that offered more for them
14 Dedicated, but tricked communist supporters People believed Stalin because he was "Communist"Many stayed loyal after it was obvious Stalin a tyrantBetrayed by Stalin who ignored and killed them
15 Skeptical people in Russia and outside Russia weren't sure revolution would change anythingrealized that a crazy leader can call himself communistknew communism would fail with power hungry leaders
16 Overall details of Russian Revolution Supposed to fix problems from CzarLife was even worse long after revolutionStalin made Czar look like a nice guy
17 Stalin takes ControlIn his sinister way, Stalin secured his power base, and engineered the permanent exile of Trotsky in 1929.The exiled Trotsky was still very useful to Stalin as he now had Trotsky to blame for all the problems and difficulties that Russia suffered.
18 5 Year PlansFrom , new economic plans, called the five-year plans, were introduced. The purpose was to improve industry
19 What does any of this have to do with Animal Farm? Manor Farm RussiaAnimal Farm USSRFoxwood Farm EnglandPilkington Winston ChurchillPinchfield Farm GermanyFrederick HitlerWindmill 5 year plan
20 What does any of this have to do with Animal Farm? Card Game – Tehran ConferenceOld Major’s Skull – Lenin’s BodyFlag (Hoof and Horn) Hammer and SickleBattle at Cowshed Civil WarBattle at Windmill WWIIAnimal Executions Stalin’s Purge