Presentation on theme: "Non-Academic References"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Academic Literature BHV 390: Research Methods Kimberly Porter Martin, Ph.D.
2 Non-Academic References Kinds of LiteratureNon-Academic ReferencesEncyclopediasDictionariesTextbooksReferencesNewspapersMagazinesYou usually may not cite these in literature reviews. Use them to locate authors the names of authors for whom you want to search in the academic literature.
3 Kinds of Literature Academic References Scholarly books Edited books/volumesPeer-reviewed journal articlesTheses and DissertationsGovernment DocumentsThese are the kinds of references you may cite in literature reviews
4 The Academic Literature There are three general types of academic literature:1. Academic booksWritten by a single expert* author2. Edited volumesEach chapter is written by a different expert*, with the book assembled by an expert* in the field3. JournalsFrequently published periodicals containing a group of articles that present recent research results or new theoretical presentations.*experts become experts through their participation in research in their fields
5 The Special Nature of Journal Articles Journal articles have a special role in presenting research results because:They are published at least several times a year, making scientific knowledge available in a timely fashion.They follow strict standards for submission.They require pre-publication review by peers to maintain organized skepticism.They do not pay their authors; the prestige of publishing is the reward they offer.
6 Secondary citations are generally unacceptable. Primary Citations You read Jones who gives a definition for self esteem. You give the definition and cite Jones.Secondary citations. You read Smith who gives Jones’ definition for self esteem. You give Jones’ definition and cite Smith.Secondary citations are generally unacceptable.
7 How to Begin a Systematic Literature Review 1. Choose a concept or population as a starting point.2. Generate lists of:-The disciplines that are likely to be involved-The types of academic references most relevant-Key words and terminology to use in the search3. Locate a wide variety of academic sources4. Mine the sources for information and take notes
8 Mining an Academic Reference Look for Theoretical ApproachesNames of theoriesPerspectives of theoriesAll possible definitions for each relevant concept including- aspects/components of each concept/definition- comparisons/contrasts between definitions4. Assumptions5. Predictions6. Logical relationships used to connect any of the above
9 Mining an Academic Reference Look for How Each Concept Has Been Studied?1. Instruments/items used to measure each concept2. Ways in which data was collectedSurveyInterviewObservationParticipant-ObservationContent AnalysisCase Study
10 Mining an Academic Reference Look for Populations Studied for Each Concepttype of populationssignificant demographic characteristics of populationspopulations that have been left out in the study of each concept
11 Mining an Academic Reference Look for Results of Studies for Each ConceptDescriptions of variables that are associated with each conceptPopulations that are affected by each conceptAssociations that have been demonstratedCause and effect relationships that have been demonstrated
12 Mining an Academic Reference Look for Gaps/Problems with the ResearchReliability – does the study need to be replicated to assure reliability?Validity – does the study measure what it says it measures?Are there other populations that should be studied?Are there ways in which the methodology should be improved?Do the authors make suggestions for future research?
13 Mining an Academic Reference Look forReferences cited in the article, book or government report that you might read to contribute to your literature review.
14 How to Read an Academic Reference Skim before reading entire documentConsider your own orientation and/or projectOrganize material as you read by highlightingOrganize material as you read by chartingEvaluate as you readNOTE: You will read/review many more sources than you will be able to use in your literature review.
15 Getting the Big Picture Out of Your Literature Read and analyze all of the references you have gathered and then assign each a number.Generate a list of concepts/topics and populations that your references say may be important in understanding your topicHighlight using colors to distinguish different topicsCreate a matrix of variables that shows what references/articles address each one.
16 Highlighting in References Highlight theory in one colorHighlight methods in another colorHighlight information about each concept in a different color.Highlight information about each population in a different colorMake hard copies and use highlighting pensUse the highlight function in your word processor to highlight in electronic files.
17 Chart Topics and Populations Assign each reference (book, chapter, article, etc.) a numberPut the numbers of your references in the columns in a tableList each relevant topic and/or population that you find in your references in the rows at the left in your table.For each topic and/or population check the columns of each reference that covers it.Each row in the table becomes a section or subsection in your paper.
18 Keeping Track of Information Topic12345678910EtcRacismXGenderIncomeEducationEtc.
19 Powerpoint Study Guide Critical EvaluationAcademic sourcesNon-academic sourcesBooksPeer-Reviewed Journal ArticlesEdited VolumesMaster’s ThesesDoctoral DissertationsPrimary CitationsSecondary CitationsHighlighting in ReferencesCharting References