2 Historical Lingustics Definition:the study of how languages change over time.
3 Reasons for Language Change The nature of societygeography and isolation of groups,invention/discovery of new things,imperfect learning, andsocial status.Example: Martha’s Vineyard, MassachusettsMove to lower socioeconomic status to show membership in year-round resident groupExample: Children learn imperfectly and transmit their errors to younger children.
4 Reasons for Language Change The nature of languageease of articulation,analogy, andmetaphorExample: Metaphors eventually change the meaning of words into their metaphorical meaning (arms (on the body) to arms (weapons) and brazo (arm) to braceros (laborers))
5 Language Change Occurs in PhoneticsPhonemicsMorphologySyntaxSemantics
6 Regular sound shifts that occur over time in many languages Phonetic ChangesRegular sound shifts that occur over time in many languagesGrimm’s Law (1822)bh b b p p fdh d d t t thgh g g k k xVoiced voiced voiced voiceless voiceless voicelessaspirated plosive plosive plosive plosive aspiratedEG. Latin Englishpater father p-f, t-thpiscis fish p-ftres three t-th
7 Verner’s LawWhen the stress/accent falls on the root syllable of the word, Grimm’s law works; when it does not, then Verner’s Law works:p bt dk g
8 Assimilation – one sound influenced by the pronunciation of a neighboring sound. (Don’t be silly – Dombe silly)Dissimilaton – when the same consonant sound appears close together, one will disappear (surprise – supprise, governor – govenor)Haplology – the loss of one of two repetitive syllables (probably – probly, Anglaland – England)Loss – a sound disappears – Old English eahta (8)Prothesis – introduction of an extra sound at the beginning of a word – Latin scola to Spanish escuela.Apocope – the loss of final sounds – Old English helpe to help.Etc………Types of Sound Change
9 Types of Morphological Change Analogy – irregular forms change to conform to regular patterns –helpan, healp, holpentohelp, helped, helpedGender changes –Early Indo European masculine, feminine and neuter toFrench - masculine and feminineDutch - common and neuterEnglish - noneGerman and Greek – masculine, feminine and neuter
10 Types of Semantic Change Lexical history (etymology)Borrowing - French from English - weekend, parkingLoan Translation - German from English – telephone to ferensprecherfern=distant, sprecher=speakerObsolescence - Concept no longer useful – English telexExtension - A word widens its meaning – Latin virtue is a male quality, English is used for both males and femalesAmelioration – loss of negative connotation, English mischievous used to mean disastrous
11 Reconstructing Past Languages Contemporary accounts – writings by authors who described language at the timePoetic evidence – rhymingAlphabetic evidence – alphabets had added symbols for soundsComparative reconstruction based on families of languagesIn future – tape recordings and video recordings.
12 Reconstruction of Proto Indo European - Romance
13 Reconstruction of Proto Indo European (Germanic)
14 Patterns of Language Change Change from above – attempts to rise in statusChange from below – using language as an indication of membership in a particular group
15 S-shaped curve – slow beginning, rapid center, slow ending
16 Wave Model – movement through social and geographical space.
17 Language Families Two kinds of family trees : Morphological – from the grammar of the languagesGenetic – from historical documentation of how languages evolved
18 Study Guide Historical Linguistics Loan translation Geogrphical isolation Obsolescence extensionCulural invention/discovery AmeliorationImperfect learning Contemporary accountsStatus differences Poetic evidenceGrimm’s Law Alphabetic evidenceVerner’s Law Comparative reconstructionAssimilation Tape and video recordingsDissimilaton Proto Indo EuropeanHaplology Loss Change from aboveProthesis Change from belowApocope S-shaped curveAnalogy Wave modelGender changes Morphological languageBorrowing familiesGenetic language families