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Dr Debra Munsterman Minnesota West College

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1 Dr Debra Munsterman Minnesota West College
Financial Ratio Dr Debra Munsterman Minnesota West College

2 Financial Ratios They keep you informed about your company's financial activity Allows you to detect operating problems as soon as they occur. Allows you to take prompt action to correct these problems Gives you a comparison to past performances. Shows you how you stack up against other similar companies by utilizing industry standards.

3 Purpose of Analyzing Financial Stmts
Analysis will give you better control over your company’s operations and financial condition. Financial Activities that are related to one another: Sales are related to the inventory you sell, COGS, and net profits A/R are related to your credit granting practices, collection policies which in turn relate to cash flow and A/P A/P relate to purchasing policies, which in turn relate to inventory levels which, relate to cash flow. Marketing and advertising relate to sales.

4 Financial Ratios Analysis of the financial Statements as they change over time allow us to detect trends that often escape our attention.

5 Concept of Financial Ratios
Financial ratios compare one financial value to another. Ratios take absolute values (dollar amounts) and convert them to relative values (percentages or index numbers).

6 Why Use Ratios to Analyze Financial Statement
Benchmarks--They are industry norms that allow a business to compare its financial ratios with the rations of other like businesses in the country.

7 Financial ratios can improve the financial management of your company by:
Understanding the relationship between financial statements. Provides an in-depth appraisal of the company’s financial health. Identifies potential trouble spots that need immediate attention. Serves as a monitor or comparison to your industry standards. Provides information for making projections and planning for future courses of action.

8 Financial Statements and Ratio Analysis
Goal To determine your solvency, risk and efficiency.

9 Three Ways to Use Financial Ratios
Compare current performance to your performance in prior years. Compare your present performance to others in your industry. Utilize projected financial ratios to develop a workable operating strategy.

10 Your Plan of Action Gather Information Package the Information
Calculate Your Financial Ratios. Record your Industry Standard Guidelines Compare your Results Identify problems Analyze causes of problems. Take Action.

11 Grouping Financial Ratios
Financial Ratios can be broken down into four functional groups. Balance Sheet Ratios Profit & Loss Ratios Efficiency Ratios Working Capital Cycle Ratio

12 Balance Sheet Ratios Solvency: Liquidity Safety
Current Ratio Measures solvency – the ability to pay its bills. Liquidity Quick Ratio Measures liquidity – the ability to generate cash without relying on the sales of inventories. Safety Debt to Equity Measures the ability to withstand adversity – shows the riskiness of the firm.

13 Profit & Loss Statement Ratios
Gross Profit Margin—Measures the percentage of each dollar left after deducting the COGS. Also known as "gross margin". Calculated as: Gross profit Margin = Revenue-COGS/Revenue $600,000/$2,500,000. = 24%

14 Profit & Loss Statement Ratios
Net Profit margin—Measures the percentage of each sales dollar left after deducting all expenses except income tax. Operating Income/Sales =Profit Margin on Sales $210,000/$2,500,000 = 8.4%

15 Asset Management – Overall Efficiency Ratios
Sales-to-Assets Measures the efficiency of assets in producing sales. Shows how many sales are produced by one dollar of assets. Sales to Fixed Assets = sales / fixed assets. Return-on-Assets Measures the efficiency of each dollar of assets employed by the business at producing profits. ROA = Net income/Total Assets

16 Return on Investment Return on Investment Measures the percentage return on each dollar invested by owners. Return on investment is frequently derived as the “return” (incremental gain) from an action divided by the cost of that action. That is “simple ROI,” as used in business case analysis and other forms of cash flow analysis. For example, what is the ROI for a new marketing program that is expected to cost $500,000 over the next five years and deliver an additional $700,000 in increased profits during the same time? Gains-Investment Cost/Investment Cost = ROI 700, ,0000/$500,000 = 40% Simple ROI is the most frequently used form of ROI and the most easily understood. With simple ROI, incremental gains from the investment are divided by investment costs. Simple ROI works well when both the gains and the costs of an investment are easily known and where they clearly result from the action. In complex business settings, however, it is not always easy to match specific returns (such as increased profits) with the specific costs that bring them (such as the costs of a marketing program), and this makes ROI less trustworthy as a guide for decision support. Simple ROI also becomes less trustworthy as a useful metric when the cost figures include allocated or indirect costs, which are probably not caused directly by the action or the investment.

17 Assets management—Working Capital Cycle Ratios
Inventory Turnover Measures the annual rate at which the inventory is sold. Inventory Days Converts inventory rate to “days inventory is on hand” Sales / Inventory = Inventory Turnover The days in the period can then be divided by the inventory turnover formula to calculate the days it takes to sell the inventory on hand or "inventory turnover days".

18 Accounts Receivable Turnover
R/A Turnover Measures the annual rate at which accounts receivable are being collected. Average Collection Period Converts the A/R turnover to the average time the firm must wait to collect on its invoices. A/R / Average Daily Sales = # Days (Average Daily Sales = Total Sales / 365)

19 Accounts Payable Turnover
A/P Turnover A measure of the rate at which A/P are being paid. Average payment Period converts the A/P turnover to the average length of time it takes the firm to pay its bills.

20 Ratio Analysis Liquidity ratios Liquid asset
ratios that relates the firm’s cash and other assets to its current liabilities Liquid asset an asset that can be easily converted into cash without significant loss of its original value

21 Ratio Analysis Current ratio
indicates the extent to which current liabilities are covered by assets expected to be converted into cash in the near future

22 Ratio Analysis Quick (acid test) ratio
deducts inventories from current assets and divides the remainder by current liabilities Shows the relationship between the more liquid current assets and all current liabilities.

23 Ratio Analysis Leverage Ratios
Debt ratio—How many dollars of assets you have to cover all your debt.

24 Ratio Analysis Asset management ratios
ratios that measure how effectively a firm is managing its assets

25 Ratio Analysis Trend analysis
an analysis of a firm’s financial ratios over time used to determine improvement or deterioration in its financial situation

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