13-2 LO 1 Describe factors associated with communicating useful information
13-3 Factors in Communicating Useful Information Users Types of Decisions Means of Analysis The primary objective of accounting is to provide information useful for decision making. To provide information that supports this objective, accountants must consider the following:
13-4 LO 2 Differentiate between horizontal and vertical analysis.
13-5 Methods of Analysis Horizontal Analysis Vertical Analysis Ratio Analysis
13-10 Vertical Analysis Vertical analysis uses percentages to compare individual components of financial statements to a key statement figure. A common- size Vertical analysis uses percentages to compare individual components of financial statements to a key statement figure. A common- size financial statement is a vertical analysis in which each financial statement item is expressed as a percentage.
13-11 Vertical Analysis of Income Statement In income statements, all items are usually expressed as a percentage of sales.
13-16 Ratio Analysis Ratio analysis involves studying various relationships between different items reported in a set of financial statements.
13-17 LO 4 Calculate ratios for assessing a company’s liquidity.
13-18 Liquidity Ratios Liquidity ratios indicate a company’s ability to pay short- term debts. They focus on current assets and current liabilities. 1.Working Capital 2.Current Ratio 3.Quick Ratio 4.Accounts Receivable Ratios 5.Inventory Ratios
13-19 Working Capital The excess of current assets over current liabilities is known as working capital.
13-20 Current Ratio The current ratio measures a company’s short-term debt paying ability. A declining ratio may be a sign of deteriorating financial condition, or it might result from eliminating obsolete inventories. Current Ratio Current Assets Current Liabilities =
13-22 Quick (Acid-Test) Ratio Quick Assets Current Liabilities = Acid-Test Ratio Quick assets include Cash, Current Marketable Securities, and Accounts Receivable. This ratio measures a company’s ability to meet obligations without having to liquidate inventory.
13-24 Accounts Receivable Turnover Net Credit Sales Average Accounts Receivable Accounts Receivable Turnover = This ratio measures how many times a company converts its receivables into cash each year.
13-26 Average Days to Collect Receivables Average Collection Period = 365 Days Accounts Receivable Turnover This ratio measures, on average, how many days it takes to collect an accounts receivable. = 21 days Average Collection Period = 365 Days 16.98 Times
13-27 Inventory Turnover Cost of Goods Sold Average Inventory Inventory Turnover = This ratio measures how many times a company’s inventory has been sold and replaced during the year.
13-28 Inventory Turnover INSERT Insert 20, p. 543, Text Box here
13-29 Average Days to Sell Inventory Average Sale Period = 365 Days Inventory Turnover This ratio measures how many days, on average, it takes to sell the inventory. = 34 days Average Sale Period = 365 Days 10.80 Times
13-30 LO 5 Calculate ratios for assessing a company’s solvency.
13-31 Solvency Ratios Solvency ratios are used to analyze a company’s long-term debt- paying ability and its financing structure. 1.Debt to Assets Ratio 2.Debt to Equity Ratio 3.Number of Times Interest Earned 4.Plant Assets to Long-Term Liabilities
13-32 Debt to Assets Ratio This ratio measures the percentage of a company’s assets that are financed by debt. Total Liabilities Total Assets Debt to Assets Ratio =
13-33 Debt to Equity Ratio This ratio indicates the relative proportions of debt to equity on a company’s balance sheet. Stockholders like a lot of debt if the company can take advantage of positive financial leverage. Total Liabilities Stockholders’ Equity Debt to Equity Ratio = Creditors prefer less debt and more equity because equity represents a buffer of protection.
13-35 Number of Times Interest is Earned Ratio This is the most common measure of a company’s ability to provide protection for its long- term creditors. Times Interest Earned Earnings before Interest Expense and Income Taxes Interest Expense =
13-37 Plant Assets to Long-Term Liabilities This ratio suggests how well long-term debt is managed to finance long-term assets. Plant Assets to Long-Term Liabilities Net Plant Assets Long-Term Liabilities =
13-49 LO 7 Calculate ratios for assessing a company’s position in the stock market.
13-50 Stock Market Ratios Stock market ratios analyze the earnings and dividends of a company. 1.Earnings Per Share 2.Book Value per Share 3.Price-Earnings (PE) Ratio 4.Dividend Yield
13-51 Earnings Per Share Earnings per Share Net Earnings Available for Common Stock Average Number of Outstanding Common Shares = This measure indicates how much income was earned for each share of common stock outstanding.
13-53 Book Value Per Share This ratio measures the amount that would be distributed to holders of each share of common stock if all assets were sold at their balance sheet carrying amounts and if all creditors were paid off. Book Value per Share Stockholders’ Equity - Preferred Rights Outstanding Common Shares =