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Golden Age of Missions 1800-1900 Following the heroic first efforts to evangelized the unreached, now a systematic and global mobilization of evangelicals.

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Presentation on theme: "Golden Age of Missions 1800-1900 Following the heroic first efforts to evangelized the unreached, now a systematic and global mobilization of evangelicals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Golden Age of Missions 1800-1900
Following the heroic first efforts to evangelized the unreached, now a systematic and global mobilization of evangelicals for world evangelism was launched

2 European and American Missions (1832-1860)
Liberian Mission Compound European and American Missions ( ) Missions were paternalistic, financially subsidized, insensitive to cultural differences and encouraged dependency– missionary is the ruler To be Christian had to be European in dress and custom Civilizing instead of evangelizing There was little confidence in national’s ability and reluctance to indigenous leadership, much less financial trust with resources Henry Venn developed the 3-selfs formula and coined the phrase “euthanasia of missions.” Change was hard to be effective until forced to do so in 1899 in China

3 Title page of abolitionist book
Social Issues Slavery in US began in 1619 until 1864, from raids in Africa – How did nationals see missionaries then? Second Awakening was quenched by social issues and the Civil War Poverty due to industrialization, is there a remedy? Southern Baptist Convention formed to allow former slave owners to be pastors and missionaries.

4 Colonial Expansion

5 Alexander MacKay - Uganda (1849-1890)
MacKay was trained in the classics, applied mechanics, higher mathematics, natural philosophy, surveying and fortifications – became an missionary engineer Ran a school to teach reading, writing and arithmetic and building and design. MacKay translated the Gospel into Uganda language Stanley declared MacKay was the “best missionary since Livingston.”

6 Golden Age of Missions (1865-1910)
Status of the US, 1861 Killed in the Civil War: 258,000 South; 360,000 North; and 400,000 wounded. Skepticism about Bible truth and values thanks to Darwinian theory, Documentary Theory and rationalism German higher criticism Third Awakening was about to begin ( ) Development of strong social concern Postmillennial Holiness Movement Great revivals, especially in Southern Armies D. L. Moody was key figure Liberal social concern was beginning in parallel to evangelical missions

7 Quality of Missionaries
Example of Colonialization in Africa Quality of Missionaries Mainland and American missionaries usually college educated, but from England recruited out of churches Only 36% had college training between What they lacked in academics they excelled in character CMS lost 53 missionaries in first 20 years in Sierra Leone – more in Liberia Melville Cox, died in 4 mo. “Let a thousand fall before Africa be given up” Commercial exploitation committed military to organize countries for profits back to Europe. 5 countries owned 95% Missionaries generally followed the military/commercial expansions

8 Hudson Taylor – China (1832-1905)
Hudson and Maria 1865 Saved reading a gospel tract, while mother prayed Learned faith principles from Plymouth Brethren; learned open air preaching and tract distribution Taught himself Mandarin, Greek, Hebrew and Latin Lived in poverty while studying midwifery Departed in 1853 for 5-month trip to China George Muller encouraged him to resign from problematic mission and start his own, Ningpo Mission Taylor met and married Maria Jane at Ningbo – after two children (1 died), decided to return to England for furlough “If I had a thousand pounds China should have it – if I had a thousand lives, China should have them. No! Not China, but Christ. Can we do too much for him? Can we do enough for such a precious Savior?” Ningbo

9 Hudson Taylor – China (1832-1905)
Wordless book preaching Duncan Kay flia While recovering health in England translated NT into Romanized Ningbo dialect for the Bible Society, graduated from medical school, and wrote a book Traveled in conferences throughout England promoting China Decided to form a new society dedicated to reaching the interior of China: China Inland Mission (1865) Distinctives: Missionaries from various denominations No guaranteed salary—income shared and no debts No appeal for funds would be made Decision-making power delegated to the field, not home office Seek to penetrate the interior in every province Missionaries would wear typical Chinese clothes and worship Chinese-style

10 Hudson Taylor – China (1832-1905)
Jennie Faulding Largest group of missionaries sent to China, but conflicts on field soon led to dismissal of 4 in 1868 1870 Maria and children return to England: 5 year old dies en route, 5 months later Maria dies in childbirth Hudson returns to England marries Jane Faulding, returns to China with 18 new missionaries Hudson’s ministry in England challenged a famous athletes, esp. C. T. Studd, along with seven Cambridge University students, “the Cambridge Seven” By 1881 there were 100 missionaries in the CIM, by 1883 there were 225 missionaries; by 1887 there were 325. In 1888 Taylor brought the first 14 missionaries from the Americas In 1900 the Boxer Rebellion killed 58 missionaries and 21 children of the CIM On 11th and final trip to China Hudson dies and is buried next to 1st wife

11 John Nevius – China (1829-1893) American missionary to China from 1853
Practiced itinerating missions, leadership training and 3-selfs principles of “indigenous” church principles 1890 taught 3-selfs principles to new Korean missionaries that resulted in explosive Korean church Nevius’ Principles: Believers must be self-supporting and stay in their community Limit programs to what the nationals want and can support National churches should call and support their own pastors Church should be native style with funds only from nationals Intensive biblical training provided for all believers every year Missionary should focus on widespread itineration evangelism Self-propagation is taught by every one becoming a teacher of someone else

12 Lottie Moon – China (1840-1912) Raised near Roanoke, VA
Appointed first single female missionary by SBC Spent 40 years in China as teacher to children and evangelist to women Challenged SBC women to form their own missionary organization for support and promotion of missions Encouraged an annual Christmas offering for foreign missions in (an offering later took her name) Her approach was different: “It is comparatively easy to give oneself to mission work ... but it is not easy to give oneself to an alien people. Yet the latter is much better and truer work than the former.” She advocated regular furloughs During a national famine she succumbed to malnutrition, dying en route to the US for health reasons.

13 Amy Carmichael-India (1867-1951)
Raised an Irish Presbyterian and started several women’s ministries in Ireland Challenged to give up her life for missions by Hudson Taylor Ill health made her unacceptable to CIM, so joined Church Missionary Society, to India Worked with Hindu temple young girls forced into temple prostitution to earn money for priests When asked, What is missionary life like?, she wrote: “Missionary life is simply a chance to die.” Her example inspired thousands of missionaries Chennai, cap. of Tamil Nadu Dohnavur

14 C.T. Studd – China, India, Africa (1860-1931)
Son of wealthy British investor in India and world-class cricket player Studd followed Hudson Taylor to China in 1885 along with six others known as the “Cambridge Seven” who turned their backs on sports and professional careers which sparked the Student Volunteer Movement CIM doubled in sized after the Cambridge Seven in 5 yrs Arriving in China he turned 25 at which time his father’s will transferred to him a large fortune, which he gave away to George Muller, D. L. Moody and other ministries. 15 years later Studd went to India to pastor for 7 years for British and local officials 1910 Studd went to Sudan convicted by lack of Christian witness, establishing 4 mission stations to reach 8 tribes His wife’s illness forced a return to England; she would work at WEC hdq and Studd returned to Africa for 15 yrs w/ 1 visit

15 D. L. Moody – Third Awakening and SVM (1837-1899)
Started a SS class in the YMCA, which grew to a church by 1864 Anywhere the Union army met he got permission to preach, after to the Confederate army as well For over two years ( ) he and Sankey traveled throughout England, Scotland and Ireland in non-stop city-wide evangelistic campaigns From he and three other evangelists campaigned in the major cities of the Midwest and Atlantic coast, preaching the message of salvation After starting several primary and secondary schools in 1886 the Chicago Evangelization Society (Moody Bible Institute) was founded He started a “College Students’ Summer School” at Mt Hermon, Northfield MA – this birthed the Student Volunteer Movement By ,000 missionaries had volunteered through this movement

16 John R. Mott – SVM ( ) Hearing the ministry CT Studd’s son in 1886 state, “Seekest thou great things for thyself? Seek them not. Seek ye first the Kingdom of God” began a 50-yr labor As rep. of Cornell U.’s YMCA at the first interdenominational student Christian conference ever held, he along with over 100 out of 251 from 89 pledged to work in foreign missions, thus the SVM For 27 years Mott was the national secretary for the intercollegiate YMCA of America and Canada and chairman of the SVM for foreign missions. In 1910 he made chairman of the International Missionary Council in Edinburgh He organized national student movements in India, China, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and Europe He organized 21 regional missionary conferences He wrote 16 books, crossed the Atlantic 100+ times, spent 34 days a year on the ocean for 50 years promoting the cause of world evangelism

17 Bible Institute Movement
With the rise of mass evangelism, SVM on one hand and rationalism and secularism on the other, a need arose to train future leaders and missionaries in biblical knowledge Bible Institutes were typically 3-year programs Most were premillennial and dispensational, inerrancy, evangelistic and very focused toward ministry Liberal Arts Bible colleges developed in the 1930’s – 1970’s to offer alternatives for university training in career fields other than and including Christian ministry fields, but mostly for Christian ministries (i.e. Christian education, science as teachers, business to support ministries, sports as testimony, etc.). Christian Universities expanded the offerings with the philosophy of putting Christian leaders in all careers, but Christian ministry preparation is only one among many careers. Accreditation tends to move institutions towards secular methodologies and objectives, de-emphasizing biblical priorities

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