INTRODUCTION Ghana is signatory to the UNFCCC which was ratified by parliament in 1995. Ghana has been an active participant in international negotiations and debates on climate change. At international level Ghana has opted for the RDD+ mechanism which seeks to provide financial incentives for national efforts at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation as well as co-benefits; biodiversity conservation, sustainable forest mgt. and carbon stock enhancement. Mitigation and adaptation measures are being pursued through integrated and multi-stakeholder participation approach
Climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives: REDD+ Forest Investment Programme Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) Non –Legally Binding Instrument on all Types of Forest (NLBI) or The forest Instrument ) REDD+ Process is managed by the National Working Group, a multi-stakeholder body chaired by the Deputy Minister for Lands and Natural Resources with the secretariat housed at Climate Change Unit of the FC Working group attended by MDAs. Civil society groups, local communities, research institutions etc
National Working group functions through technical sub-working groups The Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment The Policy, Legislation and Governance The Consultation and Participation The Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) The Reference Emission Level (REL) Reference Level Larger Technical Coordinating Committee responsible for coordinating various initiatives related to climate change and natural resources. Environment and Natural Resources Advisory Council (ENRAC) provide guidance and policy direction at the inter-ministerial level. Chair is Vice President
PHASE 1 :REDD+ Readiness Preparation Proposal (2009-2011) Following REDD+ activities carried out Organization and mgt of the REDD+ process (Institutional arrangement) Consultation and stakeholder engagement Development of national REDD+ strategy Preparation of action plans Design of policies and measures Elaboration of reference level ie Forest reference emission level & forest reference level Design and testing of monitoring (MVR) system Initial training and other capacity building activities Seven (7) REDD+ activities selected
PHASE 2 : Implementation of REDD+ National Strategy (2011-2012) Policy, legal and institutional reforms in the forest and related sectors eg. Carbon rights, tree tenure, benefit sharing schemes etc. Land tenure reforms Land use planning and zoning National forest inventory Strengthening of law enforcement(in sync with FLEGT/VPA) Capacity building for implementing REDD+(public sector, forest communities, civil society and other stakeholders Technology transfer eg Remote sensing and GIS equipment. Target programs to address drivers of deforestation and forest degradation
Implementation of demonstration activities. Development of the performance base payment system. PHASE 3: Implementation of Performance based Incentive Payment Systems. Administration of the payment system Implementation of results-based actions by forest communities, landowners, the private sector, government agencies and other stakeholders (project based) Implementation of other low carbon or carbon conserving activities to reduce pressure on forest (project based). Promotion of measurable REDD+ outcomes and results based actions (MVR)
FOREST INVESTMENT PROGRAM (1) Mitigation actions related to forests; (2) Investments outside the forest sector, primarily agriculture and cocoa sector, necessary to reduce the pressure on forests; and (3) Institutional capacity including forest management and information. Major transformations include: Improvement of coordination between ministries, agencies, stakeholders, both at national as well as sub-national and local level; A change in policies on tree tenure and benefits, especially regarding naturally occurring trees in off-reserve areas; Improved management and benefit sharing arrangements between stakeholders (GoG, Traditional Authorities, private sector, civil society) in the management of FRs; and Engaging the private sector in REDD+ and sustainable investments.
Coordinating activities: Landscape planning, inter- agency dialogue and enforcement; Enabling activities: Policy and legal reform on tree tenure and on private investment in the forestry sector, capacity building; Piloting activities: Testing alternative, inclusive models of forest reserves management, benefit- sharing schemes, and incentives to retain trees on farm; and Direct investments: Investments in the private sector in sustainable forest and agriculture, through a REDD+ investment program and technical assistance program to scale up impact.
EU FOREST LAW ENFORCEMENT GOVERNANCE AND TRADE: VOLUNTARY PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT Came into force 3 rd March 2013. Ghana FLEGT licences will be ready by early 2014 It improves forest governance and guarantees that the wood imported into EU is from legal sources discouraging deforestation and forest degradation. NON–LEGALLY BINDING INSTRUMENT ON ALL TYPES OF FOREST (THE FOREST INSTRUMENT) Sustainable forest management and poverty alleviation.
CAPACITY CHALLENGES Establishment of reference scenario and carbon accounting. Monitoring Reporting and Verification (MRV). Inadequate funding and Technical capacity on the part of REDD+ pilot proponents to kick start the process.