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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood This multimedia product.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood This multimedia product."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Vision and Hearing Changes in Middle Adulthood Vision Presbyopia Problems reading small print Bifocals if nearsighted Difficulties in dim light Reduced color discrimination Glaucoma risk Hearing Presbycus Most loss in high tones Hearing aids can help

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Skin Changes in Middle Adulthood Wrinkles Forehead – starting in 30s Crows Feet Sagging Face, arms, legs Age Spots After age 20 Faster with sun exposure, for women

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Muscle-Fat Makeup in Middle Adulthood Middle-age spread common – fat gain in torso Men: upper abdomen, back Women: waist, upper arms Very gradual muscle declines Low-fat, calorie-reduced diet and exercise can help

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Menopause Average age 51 Ranges from 42 – 58, 10 – year climacteric period Physical & psychological symptoms Hot flashes, headaches, sleep loss, slower sexual response Interpretation affects adjustment Hormone Replacement Therapy controversial Lifestyle, diet options

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Male Reproductive Changes in Middle Adulthood Reduced sperm and semen after 40 Gradual testosterone reduction Sexual activity stimulates production Erection Problems Stress, alcohol, heart or other diseases increase Viagra

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Sexuality in Middle Adulthood Slight drop in frequency among married couples Continue patterns from early adulthood More sex in good marriages Intensity of response declines Slower arousal; partner may seem less attractive Gender differences More women with no partners; lack of opportunity

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Leading Causes of Death in Middle Adulthood

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Cancer Sites in the Body

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Cardiovascular Disease Symptoms Heart attack Angina pectoris – chest pain Arrhythmia Risk Conditions High blood cholesterol High blood pressure Atherosclerosis

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Osteoporosis Bones more porous; lose bone mass Men: 8 – 12% Women: up to 50% Menopause estrogen drop speeds bone loss Bone breaks can be life-threatening Prevention, treatment: Diet – vitamin D, calcium Weight-bearing exercise Hormone therapy for women at low cancer risk

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Hostility and Health Expressed Hostility Frequent angry outbursts Rudeness, contempt Disagreeable verbal and nonverbal behavior Health Effects Cardiovascular problems Depression and dissatisfaction Health complaints, illnesses

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Stress Management Problem-Centered Coping Identify and appraise problems Choose and implement potential solutions Emotion-Centered Coping Control distress when problem cant be solved

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Hardiness Control Regard most experiences as controllable Commitment Find interest and meaning in daily activities Challenge View as normal part of life, chance for growth

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Fluid Depends on basic information processing skills: Detecting relationships among stimuli Analytical speed Working memory Crystallized Skills that depend on: Accumulated knowledge Experience Good judgment Master of social conventions Valued by persons culture

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Longitudinal Trends in Six Mental Abilities

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Verbal and Performance IQ

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Individual and Group Factors in High Intelligence Scores Lifestyle High education Complex job or leisure Lasting marriage High SES Personal Flexible personality Healthy Sex Cohort Perceptual speed

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Age-Related Slowing of Cognitive Processing Neural Network View Neurons in brain die Brain forms new connections New connections are less efficient Information-Loss View Information lost at each step through cognitive system Whole system slows down to inspect information

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Coping with Age-Related Cognitive Slowing Factual Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Metacognitive Knowledge

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Practical Problem Solving and Expertise Practical Problem Solving Evaluate real-world situations Achieve goals that have high uncertainty Expertise Efficient, effective approaches to solving problems, including practical problems Organized around abstract principles Result of years of experience

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Vocational Life and Cognitive Development Cognitive and personality characteristics affect job choice Once in job, it affects cognition Complex work increases cognitive flexibility

23 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Becoming a Student in Midlife 40% of North American college students over age 25 58% are women Reasons diverse Job change, better income Life transition Personal achievement, self-enrichment Concerns about handling class work, balancing demands outside school

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