Presentation on theme: "Health, Fitness and Factors Affecting Performance Part 2"— Presentation transcript:
1 Health, Fitness and Factors Affecting Performance Part 2 GCSE PE RevisionHealth, Fitness and Factors Affecting PerformancePart 2
2 A Balanced Diet contains: Diet and NutritionA Balanced Diet contains:Carbohydrates FatsProteins VitaminsMinerals Fibre Water
3 Carbohydrates: They are used for energy. Bananas and other fruits. BreadPastaCarbohydrates:They are used for energy.They are broken down into glucose and usedas fuel for cell respiration.RiceBreakfast CerealsPotatoes
4 You Can also get energy from fats. Cooking oilsButterFishFatsYou Can also get energy from fats.AvocadoNutsRed meatsCheeseAndDairy products
5 FishMilkEggsProteinThis helps your body to build and repair cells, restore and repair muscle and other tissue and to make bloodLiverNutsMeatCheeseBeans
6 Fibre Fruit Vegetables Brown Bread Bran and other cereals This helps you to prevent constipation and bowel cancer and absorbs poisonous wastes from digested food.Brown BreadBran and other cereals
7 Water Around half of your body weight is water. It is in your blood other body fluids and cells.You can only survive without water for a few days.You should drink 8 glasses of water a day, more if you play sports!
8 Vitamins and Minerals Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Calcium Iron IodineFish, liver, eggs, milkCitrus fruits and veg.Made by skin in the sun,Milk, fish, liver, eggs.Milk, Cheese, Sardines.Liver, beans and green vegSeafood.Healthy SkinHealthy skin,help wounds to heal.Absorb calcium, strong teeth and bonesStrong teeth and bones, muscle contrations,For the Heamoglobin in bloodControl rate at which you burn food
9 Total Energy needed = BMR + Working energy Your Energy NeedsYour Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the amount of energy you need to stay alive, awake and warm.Your Working energy is that which you need to move around, digest food and exercise.Total Energy needed = BMR + Working energyDifferent people have different energy needs, this depends upon:Age – young children need more energySex – males usually need more energy than femalesLifestyle – the more active you are the more energy you need
10 Dietary Needs continued. Energy in = Energy outIf the energy you take in is greater than the energy you use you will store this as body fatIf the energy you take in is less than the energy you use stored body fat.ObesityIf you store too much body fat you can become obeseA person who is more than 20% over normal weight for height they are obeseObesity can lead to other health problems as it puts strain on you heart joints and ligamentsAnorexiaIf you use up too much stored body fat you can become anorexic.This too can lead to severe health problems
11 Carboloading – for very long events Food for sportCarboloading – for very long eventsCut down on carbohydrates and train hard to reduce glycogen stores.Eat lots of carbohydrates and train lightly just prior to the event to increase you glycogen stores in the muscles.FluidsIt is important that you drink plenty before, during and after exercise to prevent dehydrationHigh ProteinUsed by body builders and weight lifters to enhance muscle tissue building and repair
12 Food For Sport continued Before exercise/competitionIncrease fluid intakeAvoid fatty foods as they are slow to digestAvoid basic sugars as they increase Insulin levels creating fatigueEat carbohydrates i.e pasta, cereal, fruit etc for slow energy releaseEat last meal 1-2 hours before exercise to allow digestionDuring competition/exerciseIntake liquid Glucose to increase glycogen storesContinue intake of fluidsAfter exercise/competitionIntake carbohydrates to restore glycogen storesIntake fluid to replace lost fluids
14 Functions of the skeletal system Movement – Muscles are attached to your bones, when they contract and relax they cause the bone to moveBlood Production – blood cells are made in the marrow cavity (inside) of the boneShape and support – The bones form a framework for your bodyProtection – The bones surround and protect vital organs i.e. the cranium protects the brain
15 Freely moveable (synovial) Types of jointsFreely moveable (synovial)See fixed joints later!Joints are where 2 or more bones meet and allow movementHinge joint – movement in 1 direction i.e. the elbowBall and Socket – wide range of movement, it is a rounded head that sits in a cup i.e. the hipGliding joint – allows 2 flat surfaces to glide over each other i.e. the small bones of the wrist.
16 Other types of Freely moveable (synovial) Joints Pivot joint – This allows a rotational movement i.e. the joint that allows us to turn our head from side to sideCondyloid Joint – It is a hinge joint that allows some sideways movement i.e. the joint at the wrist
17 Other types of jointsImmoveable joints – these are fixed joints and don’t move at all i.e. the the bones in the skull.Slightly moveable joints – There is only a small range of movement at these joints i.e. the vertebrae or the joints between your ribs and sternum.
18 Rotation – Movement of parts around a joint Range of MovementFlexion – bending a limb at a joint.Extension – Straightening a limb at a joint.Abduction – moving the limb away from the midline of the bodyAdduction – Moving the limbs towards the midline of the bodyRotation – Movement of parts around a joint
19 Cartilage and Ligaments It is smooth tissueFound between bonesPrevents bones rubbing togetherActs as a shock absorberLigamentsBands of elastic fibrous tissueIt holds together bonesKeep bones in place
20 The Muscular System Deltoid Trapezius Biceps Triceps Pectorals Latissimus dorsiGlutealsAbdominalsHamstringsQuadricepsGastrocnemius
21 The main actions of muscles DeltoidRaise your arm sideways at the shoulderBicepsBends your arm at the elbowAbdominalsPull in your abdomen, flex your trunk to bend forwardQuadricepsStraighten your leg at the kneePectoralsRaise your arm and draws it across your chest.Lattissimus dorsiPulls your arm down and draws it across your backTrapeziusHolds and rotates your shoulderTricepsStraightens you arm at the elbowGlutealsPulls back and sideways your leg at the hiphamstringsBend your leg at the kneegastrocnemiusStraightens your ankle joint
22 Types of muscleThere are 3 main types of muscle:Voluntary (Aka Skeletal or striped) muscle – this is attached to your bones and moves when you want it to because a signal is sent from your brain.Involuntary (Aka smooth) muscle – This is in the walls of your internal organs such as your gut or bladder, it works by it’s self without you thinking about it!Cardiac Muscle – This is only found in the walls of your heart, it works continuously, never tiring.
23 The insertion moves towards the origin when a muscle contracts. Origin and insertionMuscles are attached to bones in 2 places, the origin and the insertion. When a muscle contracts one bone will move and another will remain stationary.The origin – this is where the muscle joins the stationary bone.The insertion – this is where the muscle joins the moving bone.The insertion moves towards the origin when a muscle contracts.
24 Muscles work in pairs! Example: Flexion of the forearm: Muscles pull by contracting, they do not push!One muscle contracts to bring 2 bones together whilst another relaxes.Prime Mover (Agonist) – These muscles contract to produce the movement.Antagonist – These muscles work against the prime mover, they relax.Synergist – this helps the prime mover, it holds the body in position so the prime mover can work.Example:Flexion of the forearm:Prime mover – BicepsAntagonist - TricepsExtension of the forearm:Prime mover – TricepsAntagonist - Biceps
25 How muscles and bones work together to create movement. For example when kicking a football –The quadriceps keep the standing leg straight (Synergist).The gluteals pull your leg back at the hip and your hamstrings(Prime mover) bend your leg at the knee, Hamstrings are the antagonist.The quadriceps (prime mover) straighten your leg at the knee (the hamstrings become the antagonist) and the gastrocnemius straightens the ankle joint in preparation for striking the ball.
26 The circulatory system The circulatory system allows your blood to carry food and oxygen to the cells that need it and carbon dioxide and other waste products away.There are 2 systems:The pulmonary system – carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heartThe systemic system – carries blood to the rest of the body and back to the heart
27 Blood Blood has many jobs: In the plasma – glucose and nutrients from food, hormones and waste products such as carbon dioxide are carried around the body.In the red blood cells – there is haemoglobin which carries oxygen to exercising muscles.The white cells – they fight disease in your body.Blood also controls your body temperature – When you are too hot the blood vessels below your skin expand (vasodilatation) to release the heat. This is vital when exercising as heat is created by your body as a waste product.When you are too cold the blood vessels under your skin contract (vasoconstriction) so less heat is lost.
28 Blood Transportation There are 3 types of blood vessel: Arteries – They carry blood Away from the heart.They do not have valvesThey pulsateThick muscular wallsVeins –They carry blood back to the heartThey have valves to make sure blood doesn’t flow backwardsThey are often surrounded by muscles as when they contract it helps push the blood through.Capillaries –These are thin blood vessels where gaseous exchange takes place , oxygen and nutrients into the cells and waste products out.
29 Heart rate (HR) = the number of times your heart beats in a minute The heart working as a pump.Your heart acts as a pump to get the blood to the areas of the body it is needed. This is achieved by the muscular walls of the heart contracting and relaxing, which makes the heart beat.Heart rate (HR) = the number of times your heart beats in a minuteEach heart beat pumps blood into your arteries which causes them to expand then contract. This is know as a pulse. You can feel this at several places in your body, the wrist and carotid artery in your neck are the most common places.By counting the pulses you can tell your heart rate.Average HR at rest is 70bpm.The lower your HR at rest the fitter you are.With training your circulatory system will pump more blood with each beat.Your HR increases as you exercise to get more oxygen to your working muscles.Your max HR is 220 – your age.
30 The effect of exercise on the circulatory system The short term effects:Heart beats fasterHeart pumps more bloodArteries widenBlood vessels under the skin vasodilateThe long term effects:More blood cells produced so more oxygen can be carriedMore capillaries so that gaseous exchange can take place quicker
32 The Action of Breathing Inspiration – Breathing inDiaphragm contracts flattens and moves downwardsIntercostal muscles force ribs upwards and outwardsExpansion of chest cavity decrease air pressure in the chest cavityAir forced into lungsExpiration – Breathing outDiaphragm relaxes and becomes dome shapedThe intercostal muscles relax and return to their normal positionThere is increased air pressure in the chest cavityAir is forced out of the lungs
33 Gaseous exchange Alveoli is the site for gaseous exchange This is when oxygen goes into the blood and carbon dioxide is taken from the blood.There are thousands of alveoli. They are thin walled air sacs.The more we train the number of alveoli in our lungs increases.The removal of carbon dioxide:The lungs remove carbon dioxide from the body.The brain monitors the level of carbon dioxide in the blood, which is more when exercising.As carbon dioxide increases the brain sends a message to the diaphragm to inspire more frequently, thus taking in more oxygen and expelling more carbon dioxide.
34 Cell RespirationMovement is caused by muscles, this needs energy. We get energy from our food. Cell respiration is when we get energy from our food.When we eat this is what happens to our food:The food is digested in our gut and turned into liquid.Liquid food passes through the gut wall and into the blood.The blood carries it to all cells including muscle to be used for energy.
35 Glucose = Energy + Lactic acid Cell respiration continuedThere are 2 ways to get energy from our food, with oxygen and without oxygen.With oxygen is called Aerobic respiration:Glucose + Oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energyWithout oxygen is called Anaerobic respiration:Glucose = Energy + Lactic acid
36 Oxygen debtWhen your muscles have gained energy from your food without oxygen it creates lactic acid. Extra oxygen is needed to get rid of this.Oxygen debt = The amount of oxygen needed to get the body back to it’s resting state. This is why we continue to breath heavily after exercise.Lactic acid is painful if you do not get it out of your muscles. It is turned into carbon dioxide and water.
37 Summary of the effects of training The effects of aerobic training Decrease in blood pressureDecrease in resting heart rateHeart grows bigger and strongerDecrease in recovery rateThe number of alveoli increaseThe effects of aerobic trainingThe number of capillaries increasesVolume of blood in your body increasesArteries grow larger and more elasticRib muscles and diaphragm grow stronger
38 The effects of anaerobic training ContinuedYour heart walls grow thickerYour muscles are able to tolerate lactic acid moreThe effects of anaerobic trainingYou can become more efficient at clearing lactic acid
39 Effects of muscular endurance training ContinuedMore efficient at using oxygenBe able to repeat muscular contractions for longerEffects of muscular endurance trainingBetter at using fat for energyMore capillaries grow around the muscles
40 The effects of strength training ContinuedIncrease in muscle size - HypertrophyMuscles contract more stronglyThe effects of strength trainingTendons get bigger and stronger
41 Other effects of training Ligaments become strongerIncrease in bone strengthMore fat burned during exerciseOther effects of trainingCartilage becomes thicker so can absorb shock betterIncreased range of movement at a jointIncreased BMR so you burn stored fat quicker at rest