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V. Skeleton

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Presentation on theme: "V. Skeleton"— Presentation transcript:

1 V. Skeleton

2 A. Skeleton Functions Provides support and shape
Internal framework determines body’s shape . Protects your organs (Axial Skeleton) Skull - the brain Rib cage - the heart and lungs Vertebrae - the spinal cord

3 Enables movement (Appendicular Skeleton)
Sites for muscle attachment Pull of muscles makes movement possible Produces blood cells In the red bone marrow Stores fat and minerals Fat stored in yellow marrow Calcium and phosphate stored in a rigid matrix


5 B. Skeleton Structure Bones Ligaments Cartilage 206 bones
Living tissue with blood vessels and nerves Endoskeleton (inside the body) . Ligaments Tough, flexible connective tissue Holds bones together Allows or prevents movement Cartilage Strong, flexible, smooth connective tissue Cushions ends of bones Allows smooth movement

6 C. Bone composition Compact bone tissue Dense Rigid and hard
Forms around blood capillaries that feed the bone . Spongy bone tissue Lacy open spaces Provides strength and support Found in long bones (arms and legs) Sometimes contains red marrow

7 Mineral cycle – Growth and repair
Osteoblasts (bone cells) build calcium and other minerals into a matrix of bone process is called ossification Osteoclasts (bone cells) break down bone and deposit the calcium back into the blood (to build new bone) Connective tissue Collagen (a protein) makes bones flexible and durable is woven into the matrix with the minerals Marrow Soft tissue inside of bones Red Marrow Produce red and white blood cells Yellow Marrow Stores fat


9 D. Bone Growth Fetus – most bones start as cartilage
Cartilage replaced by bone as baby grows Osteocytes (bone cells) move into cartilage and change it into bone Cartilage in growth plates continues to produce bone as child grows Directed by hormones Growth finished at age 25-30 Hardens completely Can repair self if broken

10 E. Bone Connection - Joints
Allow movement or restrict movement Connected by ligaments Cushioned by cartilage Fuse in skull (as a baby grows) Types of joints Ball and socket Allows rotation Example: shoulders and hips

11 Gliding joints Hinge joints Pivot joints
Allows flexibility in many directions Example: Wrist and ankles Hinge joints Allows back and forth movement (like door hinge) Example: knees and elbows Pivot joints Bones rotate and move slightly up and down Example: vertebrae

12 Broken Wrist

13 F. Injuries and Disorders
Fractures Impact breaks bone Usually heals in 6-8 weeks Sprains Injury to ligament – stretching joint too far Tissues tear Swollen and painful to move Common sports injury

14 Osteoporosis Arthritis
Disease that causes bone tissue to become thin and weak Weak bones break easily Older adults who did not get enough calcium before they were 30 Arthritis Disease causes joints to swell, stiffen and become painful and misshapen Treated with drugs that reduce swelling


16 VI. Muscles A. Function of Muscles Pump blood through body
Stability and movement Move material inside the body Blood in arteries and veins Digestion system


18 B. Three Types of Muscles
Skeletal Voluntary – able to control movements Contractions pull bones together Most work in pairs around a joint - one contracts, the other relaxes Flexor bends a joint Extender straightens a joint Example: bicep (flexor) and tricep (extender)

19 Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle Involuntary – not able to control
Internal organs and blood vessels Moves materials through the body Arteries and veins (blood) Digestive system (food and waste) Cardiac Muscle Tissue that makes up the heart Never gets tired – contains lots of mitochondria Contractions push blood out of the heart

20 C. Injuries and disorders
Muscle strains and tears Injury if overstretched or torn Occurs if muscles are not warmed or stretched properly Muscle tissue swells and is painful Needs rest to heal Muscular dystrophy Hereditary disease that causes skeletal muscle to become weaker over time Affects how muscle proteins form Poor balance and difficulty walking

21 Tendinitis Inflammation of tendons that connect muscle to bone
Can be torn if overused Needs rest to heal May be treated with medicines that reduce inflammation


23 D. Benefits of Exercise Increase strength, endurance and flexibility
Keeps heart, lungs and bones healthy Reduces stress and helps with sleep

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