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Globalization Lele Mathis Period 7 Comparative Government.

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Presentation on theme: "Globalization Lele Mathis Period 7 Comparative Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 Globalization Lele Mathis Period 7 Comparative Government

2 Globalization the process of increasing interdependence of economies, political systems, and societies on a global scale the movement of people, ideas, and social customs and products across borders technological innovations interconnectedness between and among peoples, groups, countries, and international and transnational organizations a single global market

3 Interconnectedness Sensitivity Actors respond to the decisions or actions of others Vulnerability Actors are affected by others decisions or behavior International consequences of domestic policies Nations are no longer free agents

4 Barriers to Prevent Interconnectedness Tools for isolation tariff or other barriers impeding international trade official controls on international capital movements immigration laws that prevent workers from working in foreign countries deny access to international investors censor the Internet Generally beneficial to be part of the network

5 Economic Globalization Global market, benefits of free trade reduction in official obstacles to cross-border economic transactions inexpensive to do business with foreigners, reduces advantages of domestic business foreign companies moving to developing countries bring higher wages and better working conditions compared with domestic companies

6 Neoclassical Liberal Economic Theory Reducing impediments to the free movement of goods and capital lifts the wealth of all states by allowing them to concentrate on things in which they have greatest expertise Comparative Advantage

7 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Corporations based in one country making investments to establish and run business operations in other countries brings technical information, jobs, and transmission of ideas Globalization has most direct effect on people through their work and employment Most important source of FDI...

8 Multinational Corporations (MNCs) MNCs – firms with business operations physically located in more than one country 43,500 from developed countries, only 9,500 from developing world 1/3 of the worlds exports The top 10 MNCS have sales figures greater than the GDP of 170 countries

9 MNCs and Inequality Search for new markets, more resources, better investments, and cheaper labor in foreign host countries Can create competition between countries vying for investment MNCs wealth and strong bargaining position relative to poorer and weaker developing countries FDI can cause regional inequality which causes unrest

10 Race to the Bottom Accelerated by globalization Companies seek the lowest level of regulation and taxation, forcing competing governments to lower their standards of labor, human rights, and environmental protection, taxation, and other regulation Leads to less strict regulations and lower wages in countries seeking FDI

11 The Worst Off Countries excluded from globalization impossible to catch up with rapidly growing developing economies cannot benefit in any way from a globalized, information-based economy without education and access to technology

12 Globalization and the Environment industrialization leads to more emissions resource-based industries exploit resources of countries with low regulation market failure – occurs when those who are producing or consuming goods or services do not have to bear the full costs of their actions, such as pollution

13 Global Governance At the end of WWII, Allied nations at a UN Monetary and Fiscal conference set up the global institutional infrastructure to allow for global governance International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and eventually the World Trade Organization (WTO) were set up Regulate the global economy

14 Global Institutions International Monetary Fund (IMF) The World Bank International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) The International Development Association (IDA) The World Trade Organization (WTO) The World Health Organization (WHO) Multiple for nearly every major global issue

15 Structural Adjustment Policies implemented by the IMF and the World Bank set of conditions required for countries to get loans or reduce their interest rates on existing loans conditions focus on direct export and resource extraction, balancing budgets, privatization of industries, enhancing the rights of foreign investors, improving governance and fighting corruption

16 Criticisms of Global Governance democratic deficit – the idea that international institutions of governance represent elites and governments rather than individuals or groups Global governance created and run by the governments of wealthy, developed countries

17 Regional Integration Cooperation through shared institutions make dealings more efficient transboundary issues economic transactions The European Union

18 Decrease in Power of States Weakening ability of countries to control both what crosses their borders and what goes on inside them home countries have little direct influence over their MNCs in other countries host country finds it difficult to affect the actions or policies of the MNCS even within their borders harder time controlling the flow of information and ideas – harder to hide human rights abuses

19 Transboundary Problems Lack of control over the flow of people, communicable diseases, pollution, drugs, arms, hazardous materials, and even terrorist activity Terrorists, arms dealers, and drug cartels are all underground cross-border networks, moving money, people, or contraband across borders Tradeoffs between security and civil liberties countries that host hubs of these networks find themselves hostage to sanctions from these activities

20 Retaining Human Capital In developing countries, reduced cost of movement across orders can be beneficial, but can lead to brain drain best minds and most educated leave their country for greater opportunities or rewards elsewhere how to keep borders open to flow of ideas, information, and monetary capital while retaining human capital pressure on developed countries to restrict migration as a result of economic competition associated with free markets when under pressure, governments and populations react with suspicion to those culturally different

21 Fragmentation forces of fragmentation are less likely to devastate states with a long history rather than new states Globalization can lead to state disintegration and often to violence, ethical conflict, civil war, secessionism Disintegration dealt with through devolution of power (UK) or federal structure of government (Mexico, Russia, and Nigeria)

22 Global Citizenship Citizen groups closely scrutinize labor and environmental records of multinationals Bad publicity can impose significant costs and even change the behavior of MNCs groups of concerned people have created worldwide networks of information and activists and have become more effective

23 Global Citizenship globalization of media public awareness facilitated a sense of connectedness – global citizenship the means through which individuals can find common causes across geographic boundaries and mobilize to react to processes of globalization

24 Antiglobalization Protests Mass protests against the World Trade Organization, the IMF, and the World Bank Aimed to change national policies and the policies of international governmental organizations Global scaling up of violence by individuals and substate actors

25 International Non-Governmental Organization (INGO) Political actors that are not governments that operate in the international political environment A vehicle for global citizens to act Amnesty International Greenpeace Doctors Without Borders the International Red Cross

26 Role of INGOs Give aid, provide services that countries might be unwilling or unable to do on their own Serve as watchdogs especially for MNCs, increasing accountability Transnational Corporation Watch publicizes poor labor practices of MNCs such as Nike to hold them accountable and change their policies

27 UK British Empire, imperial power spread across the world – economically driven expansion Small trading nation with little natural resources Industry in high-tech or research-based fields such as aerospace engines and pharmaceuticals Outsourcing and offshoring One of the most open among the big rich countries

28 UK Devolution of Power to deal with disintegration EU and the Euro – Economic isolation to avoid recession Halfway between the US and European countries Belief in capitalism and market economy but also in social safety nets

29 Russia Transition economy from centrally-planned to open, market economy? Decide whether to open up Natural resources in north and far east – FDI Current economic recovery partly driven by high world oil prices Secessionist war in Chechnya – increased nationalism from Globalization Centralizing power in the office of the president

30 China Entered WTO in 2001, decreased trade barriers Led to influx of FDI, became factory of the world Forced to liberalize economy by the WTO foreign direct investment (FDI) has controlled over half of Chinas international trade and 85% of its total high-tech exports Low added value (assembly)

31 China Liberalization of economy, increase in inequality Wants foreign trade and FDI but doesnt want influence of western ideas Loss of the China price to countries like Bangladesh Amnesty international - repression in Tibet and Xinjiang Province in China

32 Mexico Manufacturers attracted to Mexico because of proximity to the US, cheap labor, and relaxed rules Drop in agricultural production due to large-scale sale of agricultural land to develop factories Rich invest in manufacturing, poor are exploited Regional recipients of FDI create regional inequality, North receives most FDI, south does not Opportunities for economic growth, greater disparity in living standards

33 Nigeria History as supplier of natural resources to Europeans Nigerianize the oil industry – prevent foreign takeover, spur industry to add value to crude oil Protectionist policies Tariffs, import restrictions, not letting domestic businesses integrate into the world economy Nigeria's crude oil and gas deposits – other countries interested in the internal affairs of Nigeria, could be used as bargaining chip

34 Nigeria Lack of infrastructure Regionalism, tribalism, corruption Environmental destruction from exploitation of oil and gas

35 Iran Oil, gas and electronics exports – buy luxury goods, influence from the West Cultural influences: Shiite theocracy loses control Guidance Patrols –the polices morality squads Economic Sanctions against Iran (Uranium Enrichment Program) Amnesty international - restrictions on women in Iran

36 Making of a T-Shirt

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