Presentation on theme: "Implementation of best available techniques (BAT) under the new"— Presentation transcript:
1 Implementation of best available techniques (BAT) under the new European Union Industrial Emissions (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) DirectiveA step forwardfor controlling pollution from industrial activitiesIvan JankovEuropean IPPC BureauSustainable Production and Consumption UnitJoint Research Centre – Institute for Prospective Technological Studies
2 European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) IPTS in the context of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European CommissionEuropean IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) 20 staff within the Sustainable Production and Consumption (SPC) Unit of the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS)
3 What is an EU Directive?A Directive lays down the aims, scope and key requirements that the Member States must transpose into their national legislationIt does not prescribe all details – many detailed issues must be determined by the Member States themselves, e.g. limit values, permit fees, inspections, penalties for breachesMember States free to:extend scope of activities coveredimplement before Directive deadlinessuperimpose national policies / impose stricter requirementschoose different permitting procedures
4 Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24 September 1996 Evolution of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) regulatory frameworkCouncil Directive 96/61/EC of 24 September 1996concerning integrated pollution prevention and controlDirective 2008/1/EC of 15 January 2008concerning integrated pollution prevention and control(Codified version)Directive 2010/75/EU of 24 November 2010on industrial emissions(integrated pollution prevention and control) (Recast)
5 IED amends a number of EU legislations It amends existing legislation concerning industrial emissions:Large Combustion Plants (LCP) Directive 2001/80/ECWaste Incineration (WI) Directive 2000/76/ECDirective on VOC emissions from solvents 1999/13/ECDirectives related to the titanium dioxide industry 78/176/EEC, 82/883/EEC and 92/112/EECEuropean Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) Regulation 166/20065
6 ~ 50 000 IPPC installations in Europe Annex 1 to the IEDWide range of industrial activities listed:Energy industries – LCP, refineriesProduction and processing of metalsMineral industriesCement, lime, glass, ceramicsProduction of chemicalsWaste management industriesIncinerationSome recovery or disposal operations‘Other’ industries:Pulp and paper, textile processingTanning of hides and skinsIntensive farming of pigs and poultry, slaughterhouses and animal by-product processing, food drink and milk processing, surface treatment using solventsIPPC requires permits to be based on BAT and this is defined within the Directive itself. The IPPC concept of BAT is quite complex seeking to find the best overall environmental option with regards to emissions which cannot be prevented. Inherent to BAT is a balance of likely costs and advantages and here it can be seen that BAT may be represented by an environmental optimum for energy or waste minimisation which goes beyond the normal economically attractive option for the companies. Cost neutral options for energy efficiency or waste minimisation are unlikely to be adopted by companies unless there is some external driver for them to do so. Often the most cost effective measures are not end of pipe but process integrated measures and here it can be seen that BAT focuses on the way in which activities are carried on, not just the emissions themselves.The way in which BAT is defined in the Directive and the way in which the information exchange on BAT works out - BAT usually reflects good current practice observed somewhere in the world - this is how we gather evidence that it is indeed both technically and economically viable - by examining how the best environmental performance is achieved.~ IPPC installations in Europe
7 Timeline: making the IED real 1/1/20166/1/20136/1/20116/1/20146/7/201530/6/202031/12/2023Entry into force of the Directive on industrial emissions (IED).Member States fully transpose the IED. The Directive applies to all new installations from this date onwards.All existing installations previously subject to IPPC, WI, SE and the TiO2 Directives must meet the requirements of the IED. LCP do not yet need to meet the new ELVs (Ch. III, Annex V).Existing installations operating newly prescribed activities (e.g. waste installations, wood-based panels, wood preservation) must meet the requirements of the IED.Existing LCP must meet the requirements set out in Chapter III and Annex V.Transitional National Plan provisions for LCP end.Limited lifetime derogation provisions for LCP end.
8 Other related legislation Seveso Directive (industrial accidents)Water Framework Directive (quality standards for 41 priority substances)Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (for municipal sewage)Air Quality Directive (quality standards for NOX, SO2, PM, lead, benzene, CO)National Emission Ceilings Directive (national total emission controls for NOX, SO2, VOCs, ammonia)Landfill Directive (technical requirements for landfills)Environmental Liability Directive (in the case of environmental damage)EMAS Regulation (voluntary environmental management, audit and reporting scheme)
9 The Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control System Key instrument for minimising emissions and consumptions from most industrial activities.General framework:The purpose is to prevent and, if not feasible, reduce pollution from industrial activities;Achieve a high level of protection for the environment as a whole (avoiding shifting pollution from one environmental medium to another);Installations must be operated according to an integrated permit issued by competent authorities, containing emission limit values based on Best Available Techniques (BAT).9
10 Definition of BATBest Most effective in achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as a whole;Available Developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions;Techniques Both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and decommissioned.Note: in determining BAT, special consideration should be given to the criteria listed in Annex III of IED
11 Annex III of the IED in summary (criteria for determining BAT) Waste minimisation – prevention, recycling, reuse, recoveryUse of less hazardous substances – substitutionEfficient use of resources and energyInformation published by international organisationsThe nature, effects and volume of emissionsPrevention of accidents and consequential environmental impacts….
12 ‘BAT reference documents’ (BREFs) Provide ‘BAT conclusions’ which shall be the reference for setting permit conditionsStructured and prepared on the basis of established guidelinesBased on an intensive exchange of information on:the performance of installations and techniques in terms of emissions and consumptions, etc.the techniques used, associated monitoring, economic and technical viability, etc.best available techniques and emerging techniques identified after considering all the issues concerned12
13 Industrial Emission Directive (IED) operating scheme Prevention and control of pollution arisingfrom industrial installationsIndustrial Emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control) Directive1 legislationApplication of the best available techniques (BAT)described in BAT reference documents (BREFs)35 BREFsBAT-based permit and emission limit values~ installations13
14 European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) Purpose and actors (1)Article 75 CommitteeArticle 13 ForumTWG members:Collect and exchange informationProvide expert opinionsContribute to discussionsParticipate in TWG meetingsComment on BREF draftsEuropean IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB)TWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommission35 Technical Working Groups (TWG)
15 European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) Purpose and actors (2)EIPPCB:Steer exchange of information and work of TWGAnalyse / validate information from TWGActively participate in collection of informationPropose draft texts for BREFPresent BREF at the ForumArticle 75 CommitteeArticle 13 ForumEuropean IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB)TWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommission35 Technical Working Groups (TWG)
16 European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) Purpose and actors (3)Article 75 CommitteeForum:Oversee exchange of informationNominate experts to TWGGive opinion on the BREFsGive opinion on the guidance documentsAdvise on EIPPCB work programmeArticle 13 ForumEuropean IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB)TWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommission35 Technical Working Groups (TWG)
17 European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) Purpose and actors (4)Committee:Vote on the BAT conclusionsVote on the guidance documentsArticle 75 CommitteeArticle 13 ForumEuropean IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB)TWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommissionTWGIndustryMember StatesNGOsCommission35 Technical Working Groups (TWG)
18 Member States + EFTA and Accession Countries The ‘Sevilla process’TWG kick-off meetingIndustryMember States + EFTA and Accession CountriesEnv. NGOsCommission/ EIPPCBDraft 1 (D1)Draft 2 (D2)CommentsBulk of info. needed(incl. questionnaires)Final TWG meetingForum opinion on BREFAdoption of BAT conclusions through the CommitteeBREFFinal draftBATconclu-sionsBATconclu-sions
19 What a BREF is:the instrument through which best available techniques (BAT) and emerging techniques are determined based on sound techno-economic information;a comprehensive techno-economic assessment of the polluting and consuming potentials of an industrial sector and of the ways to control them;a document that contains BAT conclusions and emission and consumption levels associated with the best available techniques;the result of an information exchange organised under Article 13 of the Industrial Emissions Directive;a publicly available document(http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/).19
20 What a BREF is NOT: it does not interpret the IE Directive; it does not define or alter legal obligations;it cannot be exhaustive or take full account of detailed local considerations.20
21 Information exchange tool: BATIS TWG scattered around Europe => infrequent face-to-face interactionsElectronic tool: BAT Information System (BATIS)
22 Dynamic aspects of BAT and review of BREFs BAT is a dynamic concept, e.g.:New techniques may emerge;Science and technology in constant evolution;New environmental processes are being successfully introduced into the industry;Costs of techniques change.Since the elements of BAT change over time, BREFs have to be reviewed and updated as appropriate.Purpose of a BREF review:Not to rewrite the whole BREF;Review new information which may affect BAT;Correct errors and inconsistencies with other BREFs;Improve user-friendliness and fill possible gaps.
23 Review of BREFs First series (33 documents) completed in 2007 Review process started:Cement & Lime (2005); Iron & Steel, Pulp and Paper, Glass (2006); Non-Ferrous Metals, Tanneries, Common Waste Water/Waste Gas (2007); Refineries, Intensive Rearing of Poultry and Pigs, Ferrous Metals (2008); Chlor-Alkali (2009); Large Volume Organic Chemicals (2010); Large Combustion Plants, Wood-based Panels (2011).Work program 2012 – 2013:2 reviews start per year;: Wood Preservation with Chemicals Products, Waste Treatments, Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals – Solids and others, Waste Incineration.
24 for the Iron and Steel Industry BREF Review processfor the Iron and Steel Industry BREF
25 Milestones in the review process for the IS BREF October 2005Activation of the TWG for the review of the Iron and Steel BREF and submission of TWG wishesSeptember 2006TWG kick off meetingFebruary 2008First draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREF (1250 comments received)July 2009Second draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREF (1385 comments received)January 2010Third draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREFFebruary 2010Final TWG meetingApril 2010Fourth draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREFOctober 2010Fifth draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREFJune 2011Final draft of the review of the Iron and Steel BREFSeptember 2011Forum opinion on the full BREF including BAT conclusionsNovember 2011Adoption of the BAT conclusions by the Committee
26 Main updates and changes in the revised IS BREF Restructuring and rewriting of the document, including:introduction of 115 new references;improving or replacing of 160 pictures;improving and updating of 180 tables.Assessing and consideration of approximately 3000 comments;Adoption and modification necessary according to the IED:95 BAT conclusions in one chapter of the BREF with a new format (including description, applicability)the BAT conclusions will be a stand-alone document);adapting of standard texts.
27 Scope of the IS BREFThis document addresses industrial activities specified in Annex I to the IED, namely:Activity 1.3: Production of coke;Activity 2.1: Metal ore (including sulphide ore) roasting and sintering;Activity 2.2: Production of pig iron or steel (primary and secondary fusion) including continuous casting, with a capacity exceeding 2.5 tonnes per hour.The document also covers pelletisation plants.
28 Scope of the IS BREF 1 2 Sinter Plant Casting / Pelletisation Blast oreshot blastoxygenfluxesCasting /PelletisationBlasthot metalBasic OxygenSecondaryRolling /PlantFurnaceFurnaceMetallurgyFinishingSlagreductantcoalProcessingCokinginjectionSteelproductsPlant2Casting /scrapElectric ArcSecondaryRolling /FurnaceMetallurgyhot metalFinishingelectric energy28
29 The key environmental issues in IS Production The key environmental issues are:the reduction of emissions to air and water;efficient energy and raw material usage;minimisation, recovery and the recycling of process residues;effective environmental and energy management systems;nuisance by noise emissions.
30 Structure of the revised IS BREF PrefaceScopeChapter 1: General Information(Steel production related data and key environmental issues)Chapter 2: General processes and techniquesChapter 3: Sinter plantsChapter 4: Pelletisation plantsChapter 5: Coke oven plantsChapter 6: Blast furnacesChapter 7: Basic oxygen steelmaking and castingChapter 8: Electric arc steelmaking and castingEMS, LCP, materials and watermanagement, monitoring, noiseSection 1- Applied processes and techniquesSection 2- Current consumption and emission levelsSection 3- Techniques to consider in the determination of BAT
31 Structure of the revised IS BREF Chapter 9: BAT conclusions for iron and steel productionChapter 10: Alternative ironmaking techniquesChapter 11: Emerging techniques (related to chapter 2 – 8)Chapter 12: Concluding remarks and recommendationsReferencesGlossaryChapter 13: Annexes
33 Example for BAT conclusions: Sinter strand Sinter plants are the major source for dust, heavy metal and dioxin emissions in IS production from oresUntreated waste gases from sinter plants are characterized by:high content of fine particles;high concentrations of dioxins, Hg, SO2, HF and HCl;high specific dust resistivity due to high alkaline content.
34 Example for BAT conclusions: Sinter strand mixingmixingdrumdrumOption:Option:••return toreturn tosintersinterstrandstrandsinter strandsinter strand••treatmenttreatment••disposaldisposalwastewastegasgassuctionsuctionAdditiveinjectionAdditivesStackCycloneESPESPESPBag filterBag filterCycloneCyclonerequired:required:optional:required:prepre--dedustingdedustingfilter internalfilter internaldust returndust returnWater, lime(SO2)Carbon additive(PCDD/F, Hg)(HCl, HF, precoating)Lime•Disposal•Disposal•treatment••Return to sinter strandreturntosinterstrandTypical system arrangement for control of dust, PDCC/F, HCl, HF and SOx emissions
35 Example for BAT conclusions: Reduction of dust emissions from sinter strands 20. BAT for primary emissions from sinter plants is to reduce dust emissions from the sinter strand waste gas by means of a bag filter.BAT for primary emissions for existing plants is to reduce dust emissions from the sinter strand waste gas by using advanced electrostatic precipitators when bag filters are not applicable.The BAT-associated emission level for dust is <1 – 15 mg/Nm3 for the bag filter and <20 – 40 mg/Nm3 for the advanced electrostatic precipitator (which should be designed and operated to achieve these values), both determined as a daily mean value.Bag FilterDescription: Bag filters used in sinter plants are usually applied downstream of an existing electrostatic precipitator or cyclone but can also be operated as a standalone device.Applicability: For existing plants requirements such as space for a downstream installation to the electrostatic precipitator can be relevant. Special regard should be given to the age and the performance of the existing electrostatic precipitator.
36 Example for BAT conclusions: Reduction of dioxin emissions from sinter strands 25. BAT for primary emissions from sinter strands is to reduce emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by using injection of adequate adsorption agents into the waste gas duct of the sinter strand before dedusting with a bag filter or advanced electrostatic precipitators when bag filters are not applicable.The BAT- associated emissions level for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/F) is <0.05 – 0.2 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 for the bag filter and <0.2 – 0.4 ng-I-TEQ/Nm3 for the advanced electrostatic precipitator, both determined for a 6 – 8 hour random sample under steady-state conditions.
37 Example for BAT conclusions: Electric Arc Furnace
38 Example for BAT conclusions: Electric Arc Furnace Typical system arrangement for control of dust and PDCC/F emissions
39 Example for BAT conclusions: Reduction of dust emissions from electric arc furnace 89. BAT for the electric arc furnace (EAF) primary and secondary dedusting (including scrap preheating, charging, melting, tapping, ladle furnace and secondary metallurgy) is to achieve an efficient extraction of dust emissions from all emission sources by using one of the techniques listed below and to use subsequent dedusting by means of a bag filter:I. a combination of direct off-gas extraction (4th or 2nd hole) and hood systemsII. direct gas extraction and doghouse systemsIII. direct gas extraction and total building evacuation (low-capacity electric arc furnaces (EAF) may not require direct gas extraction to achieve the same extraction efficiency).The overall average collection efficiency associated with BAT is >98 %.The BAT-associated emission level for dust is <5 mg/Nm3, determined as a daily mean value.
40 Example for BAT conclusions: Reduction of dioxin emissions from electric arc furnace 90. BAT for the electric arc furnace (EAF) primary and secondary dedusting (including scrap preheating, charging, melting, tapping, ladle furnace and secondary metallurgy) is to prevent and reduce polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) emissions by avoiding, as much as possible, raw materials which contain PCDD/F and PCB or their precursors (see BAT 6 and 7) and using one or a combination of the following techniques in conjunction with an appropriate dust removal system:I. appropriate post-combustionApplicability of BAT I: In existing plants, circumstances like available space, given off-gas duct system, etc. need to be taken into consideration for assessing the applicability.II. appropriate rapid quenchingIII. injection of adequate adsorption agents into the duct before dedusting.The BAT-associated emission level for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/F) is <0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3, based on a 6 – 8 hour random sample during steady-state conditions. In some cases, the BAT-associated emission level can be achieved with primary measures only.
41 Thank you for your attention European IPPC BureauTel.:European IPPC Bureau