One exception can be just as informative as an army of sycophants... 15
E VERY PICTURE TELLS A STORY. U SING PHOTO - ELICITATION AND VISUAL ANALYSIS FOR DATA COLLECTION IN E ARLY C HILDHOOD E DUCATION RESEARCH. Dr Jens J. Hansen, Research Fellow, School of Education Jo Perry, Lecturer, School of Education MIT School of Education Eighth Annual Research Symposium, 2011 16
T HE IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOGRAPHS … visual images…evoke for research participants a different way of viewing their own reality and a different way of understanding how they see themselves and how others see them. In other words, individuals see themselves reflected in images in a way they may not see themselves reflected in words. (Kendrick & McKay, 2004, p.112). 17
O UR CONTENTION IS … By adopting a systematic approach to examining images (through a number of strategies which range from being very simple to involving quite complex procedures), a deeper understanding of the overall image and portions portrayed within it can be achieved. 18
A SIMPLE OVERVIEW One picture…a thousand stories… …and importantly, what the picture implies, but cant show, is that at least a thousand plus hours of study and hard work were involved… 19
W HAT WE WANT TO DO... We want to introduce discussion and strategies for examining visual data in a more rigorous and disciplined manner; Previously weve outlined our new take on accomplishing this using simple as well as sophisticated technologies but weve moved on; This means we can introduce some (but not all) of our emerging ideas for the first time; We know our ideas can be applied in education as well as other social sciences not only for research but as a means of helping professionals to transform their practice. 20
P HOTOGRAPHS What is a photograph and what is it used for? How can it be used for research and especially practice based research? What are the issues and the implications of using photos for research? How might we begin to make sense of all of these questions and what are the best strategies to use? 21
P HOTO - ELICITATION A method for QL research. When we use photo-elicitation the artefact becomes a device for drawing out information from participants; There are a variety of configurations. We can: show the researchers choice of pictures; discuss the participants choices of pictures; take pictures collaboratively with participants and then discuss them collaboratively. 22
We are not amused (despite the recent wedding). 23
W E WANT TO INTRODUCE FOUR SIMPLE STRATEGIES FOR UNDERTAKING VISUAL ANALYSIS First, there is the possibility of doing things manually with or without computer ( we will show you this ); Second, you can use a mind-mapping/visual thinking programmes such as Inspiration ( well also show you this ); Third, you can import adjusted pictures into specialised software ( we could demonstrate this but due to time constraints, we wont ); Finally, you can also generate analyses within specialised software using built-in capabilities ( we wont show you this either but you can ask us about it ). 25
Now lets look at two separate computer mediated approaches…first with Inspiration 27
O NE SOFTWARE PACKAGE THAT CAN BE USED IS N VIVO 9 28 You can either import pictures that have been doctored by imposing a grid onto a photograph… Or you can use the software to highlight a section for analysis.
N OW THAT WE VE SHOWN YOU THESE FEW STRATEGIES, LET S LOOK AT WAYS OF THINKING ABOUT WHAT WE VE CAPTURED … 29
T HERE ARE THREE DIFFERENT FOCI FOR THINKING ABOUT PHOTOGRAPHS : 1. Physical: spaces and shapes we see. 2. Affective: what we feel about what we see. 3. Cognitive: what we think about what we see. 30
W E LL EXAMINE ONE DIMENSION ONLY HERE : S PACES AND S HAPES 31 Do spaces between people &/or objects have meaning? Where seemingly, there had been at the initial viewing, no apparent or symbolic connections, what might we make of spaces between people &/or objects?
S PACES AND S HAPES We interpreted spaces which had the potential to become part of the story of the picture. We wondered per se, why spaces were there? Were spaces, or distances intentionally engineered by one or more players when, and for what reasons? Were they indicants of social expectations or customs which were relevant to understanding the specific actions that were going on? 32
A S C HARMAZ SO SIMPLY PONDERS Whats happening here? i.e. what basic socio-psychological processes are occurring within the photograph and/or may be implied by spaces between objects and/or people? 33
H OW MIGHT WE PROCESS THE VISUAL DATA ABOUT SPACES ? W E WRITE WORDS … PhysicalAffectiveCognitive Write words about aspects of the spaces you see. Write words about how those spaces affect what you feel about the scene Write words about how the spaces determine what you know & think Write words about the physical groupings you see. Write words about how the groupings affect what you feel Write words about how groupings determine what you know & think Write words about the physical composition of the photo Write words about how the photo composition affects what you feel Write about how the composition determines what you know & think Write words about the physical body language Write words about how the body language affects what you feel Write words about how the body language determines what you know & think 34
P HOTOGRAPHS MAY, THEREFORE, TRIGGER P HYSICAL &/ OR A FFECTIVE &/ OR C OGNITIVE INTERPRETATIONS 35 Were groupings significant and how did they invite us to interpret actions and interactions? Do all viewers see groupings and the relationships they suggest in the same way? If there were differences in the ways viewers saw things, to what extent were such differences important or unimportant? How might such difference inform our analyses? As John Berger noted, We are always looking at the relation between things and ourselves (Berger 1972 p. 9). What might a teachers learning story comprise here? What would you write? Now what might your learning story look like?
What then, are the implications of this for: Educational researchers? Educators? Learners? 36
I MPLICATIONS SUMMED UP What weve shown you, we believe, has useful implications both for research and professional practice. 1) We can use images to prompt memories of particular events 2) We can look at pictures of childrens learning experiences for future planning. 3) We can use pictures for research purposes by analysing whats going on in a systematic manner. 4) We can use pictures for engaging with parents and children – that is, they become a canvas for photo-elicitation. 37
C ONTACT DETAILS... You can obtain further details about this presentation by contacting us: Dr Jens J. Hansen, Director of the Woodhill Park Research Retreat, Phone +64 9 411 7703, email@example.com www.woodhillpark.com Research Fellow in Education, School of Education, Manukau Institute of Technology, Extension 7015 Anna Jo Perry, Lecturer, School of Education, Manukau Institute of Technology, Extension 7137 firstname.lastname@example.org 38