2 Who: Founding Sisters Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony Lucretia MottLucy StoneAlice PaulCarrie Chapman CattJeanette RankinThousands of other men and womenSuffrage leaders Mott, Anthony, and Stanton in U.S. Capitol basement
3 Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) Introduced to the law and gender inequalities by her father who was a judgeRefused to say “obey” in her wedding vows and to be known by her husband’s nameBecame involved in abolition and women’s rightsHelped to organize the Seneca Falls ConventionPublished books and wrote many speeches that were performed by others
4 Susan B. Anthony ( )Became interested in women’s rights when an elementary teacher refused to teach her long divisionActive in abolition and temperance movements as wellFounded National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) in 1869 with StantonArrested for illegally voting in the 1872"Where, under our Declaration of Independence, does the Saxon man get his power to deprive all women and Negroes of their inalienable rights?"
5 Lucretia Mott (1793 –1880)Became interested in women’s rights when male co-workers were paid three times she wasBecame a Quaker minister and preached abolitionCo-organizer of the Seneca Falls ConventionWorked for more equality in marriage and divorce
6 Lucy Stone (1818–1893) Raised by an abusive father Fought to become educatedJoins women’s movement to improve the lives of womenBegan public speaking about temperance and slavery as wellEncouraged women to wear bloomers"If a woman earned a dollar by scrubbing, her husband had a right to take the dollar and go and get drunk with it and beat her afterwards. It was his dollar."
7 Carrie Chapman Catt (1859–1947) Inspired to act after being sexually harassed in the workplace after being widowedTraveled extensively to encourage suffrage in the statesWorks out a compromise between various suffrage groups over methods to operationFounded the League of Women Voters“We are working for the ballot as a matter of justice and as a step for human betterment."
8 Alice Paul (1885–1977)Used parades and speeches to draw attention to women’s rightsLater used non-violent civil disobedience to attract publicity (first group in US History)Arrested for picketing and sentenced to prisonHunger-strike was met with torture techniques by officialsPublic pressure pushed passage of the amendmentWorked on Equal Rights Amendment through the 1970’s
9 Jeanette Rankin ( )Thought that social conditions were worsened by lack of female suffrageClaimed that women were taxed without representationFelt that women who could vote would be able to better care for their familiesFirst woman elected to Congress from Montana in 1916Voted against US entry into World War I and II
10 What: Major Issues Who is a citizen? What are the rights of citizens? Husbands and fathers directed the lives of women, making women essentially propertyWomen were prohibited from inheriting property, signing contracts, serving on juries and voting in elections.Few employment options, and women were usually paid half of the wages of a man for the same workBecause women had no input into laws, is it fair to make them live under them?
12 When Began as an issue during colonial times Took root during reform era of the 1840’s-50’s.Support declined after the Civil warRebounded in the 1880’s- 90’s as part of the Temperance MovementBecomes law after World War I
13 Why: Arguments ForThe vote would help women to get rid of other inequalitiesWomen would want more moral laws than menWomen are capable of understanding politicsOther countries are giving women the voteThe vote is a democratic rightWomen pay taxes and so should have a say in what happened to that moneySome uneducated working men could vote but well-educated “respectable” women could not
14 Why Not: Arguments Against Women were represented by their husbands and fathersWomen would be morally corrupted by politicsWomen are too emotional for logical thoughtWomen had “separate spheres”Women could not fight in the armyMost women don’t want to voteThe system works, why change it?Women would stop getting married and having children, thus ending humanity
15 How: AbolitionWomen were allowed to participate in abolition meetings and some became well-known speakers and writersMany began to make comparisons between the status of women and slaves
16 Seneca Falls Convention Meeting held July 19-20, 1848 in Seneca Falls, New YorkPlanned by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott and other local womenDiscussed the role of women in society including legal and social issuesWrote and approved the Declaration of Sentiments
17 Declaration of Sentiments He has compelled her to submit to laws, in the formation of which she had no voice.Having deprived her of this first right as a citizen, the elective franchise, thereby leaving her without representation in the halls of legislation, he has oppressed her on all sides.He has made her, if married, in the eye of the law, civilly dead.He has taken from her all right in property, even to the wages she earns.After depriving her of all rights as a married woman, if single and the owner of property, he has taxed her to support a government which recognizes her only when her property can be made profitable to it.
18 Post-Civil War Conflict Many women thought that they could received rights along with/in place of African-American men15th Amendment does not mention genderMovement splits between those who want gender included and those who want to add a separate amendment for women later
19 Women’s Suffrage Amendment Proposed In January a suffrage amendment was introduced in CongressCongressmen had no incentive to act on this issueThe amendment was buried in committee for nine years, and when the full Senate finally considered it in 1887, it was defeated by a vote of sixteen to thirty-fourIt would not come to a vote again in the Senate until 1914
20 State by state Strategy Who can vote is usually determined by the statesSuffragettes begin a series of state-level campaigns to win the ballot for women.As women could vote in some states, they voted for representatives who would push the issue at the national level
21 Protest MovementA parade was planned for the day before President Woodrow Wilson’s inauguration in 1913 kicked off protestsParade was lead by lawyer Inez Milholland dressed in white on a white house
23 Protests continue when WWI begins Many thought that protests at the White Houseduring wartime was unpatrioticWomen were arrested for “obstructing traffic”and sentenced to prisonMany suffragettes in prison started a hungerstrikePrison officials respond by beating women andforced feedingsPeople were appalled at the treatment ofwomen in prison
24 Wilson agrees to support the amendment after public outcry over treatment of protesters
28 ImpactsPeople thought that women voting would greatly change the make up of the political partiesFew changes actually occurredSince 1964, more women vote than men in every election
29 Modern Day DebatesFeminism: a collection of movements intending to establish and defend equal political, economic, and social rights and equal opportunities for womenEqual Rights Amendment that would have made gender discrimination illegal fails in 1982 to be ratifiedVarious laws have been passed protecting women from discrimination in the workplace and schools.Women still make up far less than half of the representatives in government and make less money than menWomen’s reproductive rights still a controversial issueMany countries still deny women basic rights