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Printed Wiring Board Fabrication. Imaging For feature sizes less than 200μm, use photolithography process 1.Clean surface 2.Apply photoresist 3.Expose.

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Presentation on theme: "Printed Wiring Board Fabrication. Imaging For feature sizes less than 200μm, use photolithography process 1.Clean surface 2.Apply photoresist 3.Expose."— Presentation transcript:

1 Printed Wiring Board Fabrication

2 Imaging For feature sizes less than 200μm, use photolithography process 1.Clean surface 2.Apply photoresist 3.Expose photoresist 4.Develop photoresist image 5.Pattern transfer image (plating or etching) 6.Strip photoresist Dry film photoresist for pattern formation Liquid photoresists for precision work (less than 50μm)

3 Drilling Purpose is to form an electrical connection between layers and permit through-hole component mounting Typically use tungsten carbide drill bits at speeds of 50,000 to 100,000rpm Most common defects are: –Delamination - vibrational –Smear - thermal –Burr - sharpness –Debris - sharpness Drill smear is the most important factor for hole quality Drill smear occurs due to heating of the PWB by the drill, which can cause epoxy-resin melting

4 Plating Metal deposition by electroless and electrolytic processes Typically use copper with the following requirements –High electrical conductivity –Good mechanical strength –High ductility and elongation –Excellent solderability –Good tarnish and corrosion resistance –Good etchant resistance Also can add Sn, Sn-Pb, or Ni undercoating as a solder barrier

5 Etching Typically chemical etching used (alkaline ammonia, hydrogen peroxide-sulfuric acid, cupric cholride) Process steps: –Resist stripping –Precleaning –Etching –Neutralization –Water rinsing –Drying

6 Single-sided PWB Fabrication Single layer process shown Can either use: –Photolithographic process Higher precision Higher cost –Screen printing Lower precision Lower cost

7 Double-sided PWB Fabrication 1.Holes drilled, deburred, and cleaned 2.Panels prepared for electroplating 3.Deposit, mask, expose, and develop photoresist (UV light) 4.Copper electroplating 5.Additional electroplating (Sn-Pb) to protect and improve quality of surface 6.Strip photoresist 7.Solder reflow

8 Multilayer PWB Fabrication Pressing process to form layers Alignment is critical Process steps: 1.Panels produced using double- sided etching from prepreg laminates 2.Panels are laminated, pressed, and cured 3.Additional drilling, electroplating and etching as required

9 Four Layer PWB Example

10 Solder Masks Three primary types of solder resist masks: 1.Screen-printed 2.Dry film 3.Liquid photoimageable (LPI) Dry film and LPI produce finer features than screen-printed Protection of exposed surfaces using finishes FinishTypical Thickness Features Electroplated Ni + matte Sn 7.5μm Sn over 5μm Ni Solderable surface and good shelf life Electroplated Ni + hard Au 0.75-1.25μm Au over 5μm Ni Excellent corrosion resistance, shelf life, hardness and wear resistance. Electroplated Ni + soft Au 0.75-1.25μm Au over 5μm Ni Excellent corrosion resistance and shelf life, fair wear resistance Electroless plated Ni + immersion gold 0.02-0.1μm Au over 4.5μm Ni Excellent corrosion resistance, solderability, and shelf life Hot-air solder leveling (HASL) 1.5-5μm Sn- Pb Excellent solderability, good shelf life Organic solderability preservative (OSP) 0.2-0.5μmExcellent solderability, surface coplanarity and hole size uniformity, and good shelf life

11 Limitations on PWB Process New products require higher pad densities Drilled hole technology becomes too expensive Microvia is the solution

12 Microvias Fabrication processes: 1.Laser drilling 2.Plasma or RIE 3.Photolithography Advantages for high volume production: 1.Increased circuit density 2.Advanced packages enabled 3.Better electrical performance 4.Improved reliability than drilled holes 5.Improved thermal conductance 6.Lower PWB cost

13 Microvia Generation 1.Photovia Utilizes photolithography Requires photosensitive permanent dielectrics 2.Plasmavia (PEV) Very flexible process Can generate many different geometries Typically 60-90μm diameter 3.Laservia Economical for mass production Nd:YAG, CO 2, UV excimer 4.Paste-via Cheap, but less reliable

14 Laservia is the best overall microvia process Direct CO2 laser drilling is leading throughput and quality of holes 20,000 holes/min/head

15 Microvia Board Technologies Three major technologies 1.Surface Laminar Circuitry (SLC) or Build-Up Technology 2.All Layer Internal Via Hole (ALIVH) Technology 3.Buried Bump Interconnection Technology (B 2 IT)

16 Build-Up Technology Can use photosensitive dielectrics for photovias or use lasers to drill vias Copper lines can be spaced as close as 20μm wide Lastly, gold plating is used for wire bondable surface finish

17 All Layer Internal Via Hole (ALIVH) Process Invented by Matsushita in Japan Used primarily for cell phone boards Uses epoxy-aramid prepregs with laser drilled vias, which are filled with copper paste

18 Buried Bump Interconnection Technology (B 2 IT) Invented by Toshiba in Japan Uses silver paste bumps to punch holes in dielectric or prepreg

19 PWB Market Expected growth of PWBs and microvias

20 PWB Trends Feature size and pitch decrease as number of pins increases

21 Summary and Future Trends PWB Fabrication process (Imaging, Drilling, Plating, and Etching) Different board fabrication processes (Single-sided, Double-sided, and Multilayer) Microvia generation (Photovia, Plasmavia, and Laservia) Microvia board fabrication (Build-up, ALIVH and B 2 IT) Trade-offs (cost, reliability, quality of contacts, dielectric properties, feature sizes, etc.)

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