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Presentation on theme: "FUNDAMENTALS OF MULTICHIP PACKAGING"— Presentation transcript:

Adeel Baig Jason Shin Sqsq

2 Microsystems Packaging
Chapter Objectives Define multichip modules and basic application areas Describe multichip module types and construction Present elements of multichip module design Develop tradeoffs between multichip module types and alternative packaging methods. Microsystems Packaging

3 8.1 What Are Multichip Modules?
A single unit (package) containing two or more chips and an interconnection substrate which function together as a system building block. Classification Requirements Ac ≥ 0.5 As Ac is the area of the semiconductor or chip. As is the area of the substrate (package or carrier)

4 8.1 What Are Multichip Modules?

5 8.1 What Are Multichip Modules?
Functions Provide signal interconnect and I/O management Thermal management Mechanical support Environmental protection

6 8.1 What Are Multichip Modules?
Advantages Chips spaced more closely. Reduced volume and weight. Applications Aerospace Medical Consumer Portable Supercomputers

7 8.2 Multichip Module Functionality
For a highly functional MCM, the following criteria must be satisfied: Chip to chip spacing must be held to a minimum. The MCM must provide a means of thermal management to limit the junction temperature of the semiconductor chips to less than °C. The MCM must provide reliable I/O connections to the next level of assembly. The MCM must provide protection from the environment.

8 8.2 Multichip Module Functionality

9 8.3 Multichip Module Advantages
Higher packaging efficiency. Better electrical performance. Greater reliability. Potential for lower cost.

10 8.3.1 Packaging Efficiency Packaging efficiency is the ratio of the area of all the base chips to the area of the MCM substrate. Single chip package efficiency is between 10 – 50%. MCM package efficiency is around 80%.

11 8.3.1 Packaging Efficiency MCM Single Chips

12 8.3.2 Electrical Performance
MCM performance can be measured by functional throughput rate (FTR). FTR is the product of the number of gates per module times the maximum clock rate of such gates. Maximum clock rate is 0.25tD where tD is the delay associated with the typical gate. Another measure of performance is MIPS. Number of MIPS = 103 / [(cycle time) X (cycles per instructions)] Other measures include clock speed, operation frequency, and power dissipation.

13 8.3.3 Reliability Three different areas:
Design for reliability with a minimum number of connections. Construct the module using six-sigma manufacturing processes. Perform accelerated and other screening tests on the MCM to remove defect-induced failures before the product is shipped to the consumer.

14 8.3.4 Cost Cost is expected to be lower than the alternative single chip package implementation. Reduction of the number of interconnects and minimized substrate area and system volume. Cost per unit area is higher, but the overall size is smaller.

15 8.4 Multichip Modules at the System Level

16 8.4.1 Electrical Design Considerations
Signal paths must be short with controlled impedances and low loss. Deviations from design specifications can result in crosstalk, increased delays, and distorted signal waveforms. Must address dielectric constant, signal line geometries, interline spacing, and the distribution and location of power and ground.

17 8.4.2 Sealing and Encapsulation
MCMs are either hermetically sealed in ceramic or metal packages or they are encapsulated. Hermetic sealing or encapsulation of the MCM is important and can contribute to module reliability. Encapsulants need to be reworkable for high value MCMs. Encapsulant must be easy to remove.

18 8.4.3 Heat Removal Module power dissipations have risen from a few Watts per module to Watts per module. ICs must be maintained at 100°C or below.

19 8.4.3 Heat Removal Substrate aids in the heat removal process.
Actual thermal transfer depends on how the chips are interconnected to the substrate. Three methods of interconnect: Wirebonding Flip Chip Tape Automated Bonding (TAB)

20 8.4.3 Heat Removal

21 8.4.4 Electrical Interconnections
Requirements Fatigue and creep resistance Corrosion resistance Electromigration resistance High conductivity

22 8.4.4 Electrical Interconnections
Wirebonding Flexible Low interconnect cost Lower capitalization cost Ease of use

23 8.4.4 Electrical Interconnections
Flip Chip Can effect the highest number of interconnects per unit area. All interconnects are contained within the chip area. Extremely low capacitance and inductance per joint. Most robust replacement process.

24 8.4.7 Electrical Testing Different Levels of Testing
Substrates must be defect free prior to assembly. Verify that all networks are connected appropriately. Visual inspection. After assembly, MCM must be electrically tested to ensure that the module is working. Device must be encapsulated and environmentally stressed. In an MCM, if one die fails, the whole module fails.

25 8.5 Types of Multichip Module Substrates
MCM - More than half of its area covered with active devices Move from PWB to MCMs Three basic styles of MCMs MCM-L MCM-C MCM-D Microsystems Packaging

26 8.5 Types of Multichip Module Substrates
Microsystems Packaging

27 Microsystems Packaging
8.5.1 MCM-L Organic PWB fabrication Organic coatings used to protect chips and bonds Three types of lamination substrates Rigid Flex Rigid flex Microsystems Packaging

28 Microsystems Packaging
8.5.1 MCM-L (continued) Two types of dielectric layers in MCM-L construction Cores Prepregs MCM-L substrate process Selecting appropriate core and prepreg layers Photolithographic pattering and etching of copper conductors on the core layers Drilling of vias Lamination of the cores to each other using the prepreg layers. Plating of drilled holes in single layers, partially though several layers and holes all the way though the board Microsystems Packaging

29 Microsystems Packaging
8.5.1 MCM-L (continued) Inner layer processing Copper surfaces cleaned in preparation for pattern processing Photoresist is applied by laminating of a dry film resist material (other techniques) Liquid resists typically allow finer line definition Pattern is exposed with ultraviolet light – removes unwanted resist areas Copper foil is etched in ammonia-based alkaline system Photoresist is chemically removed Microsystems Packaging

30 8.5.1 Advanced MCM-L substrates
Cost increases as hole diameter decreases In high density applications (micro processors) loss of wiring density cannot be tolerated Built-up technology Microsystems Packaging

31 8.5.1 Advanced MCM-L substrates
Microsystems Packaging

32 Microsystems Packaging
8.5.2 MCM-C Ceramic-based substrates Evolved from traditional thick-film fabrication techniques Density increased: Shrinking size of features (vias) used for interconnecting layers Shrinking conductor traces used for signal routing Shrinking gaps between traces or vias Microsystems Packaging

33 Microsystems Packaging
8.5.2 MCM-C (continued) MCM-C Process Dielectric layers are sheets of unfired ceramic green state ceramic Each sheet is separately patterned Vias are mechanically punched or laser drilled Vias filled by extruding the conducting paste into the holes though a stencil Fired Microsystems Packaging

34 Microsystems Packaging
8.5.2 MCM-C (continued) Microsystems Packaging

35 Microsystems Packaging
8.5.2 MCM-C (continued) 2 –types High temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) Microsystems Packaging

36 Microsystems Packaging
8.5.2 MCM-D Combination of superior materials and dimensional resolving power of thin-film technology Several dielectric/metallization technologies Vias are formed in the polyimide by reactive-ion etching in an oxygen plasma using a photo-patterned metal mask Microsystems Packaging

37 Microsystems Packaging
8.5.2 MCM-D Microsystems Packaging

38 8.6 Multichip Module Design
Wireability analysis used to find the basic size possible Basic concepts Estimation of wiring demand Wiring capacity Average wire length Connectivity Microsystems Packaging

39 8.6 Multichip Module Design (continued)
Wiring demand (D) amount of wiring required to interconnect a given circuit Wiring capability (C) is the amount of wiring available for interconnection Wiring efficiency 30-70% range depending on circuit type Microsystems Packaging

40 8.6 Multichip Module Design (continued)
Wiring capacity Function of the minimum signal line pitch Ps that can be fabricated on a given MCM substarate technology. Total wiring capacity: Microsystems Packaging

41 8.6 Multichip Module Design (continued)
Wiring demand Wire demand without preliminary layout requirements Microsystems Packaging

42 8.7 Multichip module technology comparisons
Microsystems Packaging


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