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Water Resources Engineering (Intro)

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Presentation on theme: "Water Resources Engineering (Intro)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Resources Engineering (Intro)
By Dr.S.S.Rao Mobile No ,

2 Water Resources Engineering (SBST-Syllabus)
Hydrological cycle and its components Climate Precipitation, Interception, evaporation, transpiration, infiltration, Subsurface water and runoff Surface water Hydrology Basic concepts in surface water hydrology Detailed analysis of precipitation, evapotranspiration Stream flow measurements Runoff, Hydrographs, Floods, Flood routing Erosion and reservoir sedimentation Groundwater Hydrology Groundwater basics Aquifer parameters Porosity, Specific yield, Storage Coefficient, Coefficient of Permeability, Transmissivity, Specific Capacity and their practical significance Darcy’s law Derivation of aquifer parameters, Pumping test analysis Quality of water and sea water intrusion Numerical Techniques in groundwater hydrology Groundwater management

3 Applications of water resources Engineering
Traditional Applications Irrigation and Scheduling and Types of Irrigation Drinking water Power Generation Water quality Salinity Pollution of water in relation to use Salinity ingression in coastal aquifers Modern Applications Geographical information system (GIS) Statistical & Computer applications in water resources Special Applications Rain water harvesting Watershed Management Artificial recharge techniques Management Planning of water resources & Basin Management Reservoir planning Linear and Dynamic programming in water planning

4 References Engineering Hydrology by K.Subramaniya
Hydrology by HM Ragunath Water resources engineering Franzine, Lindsey Engineering Hydrology by R.S.Varshney Groundwater by HM Ragunath Groundwater Hydrology by Todd Groundwater Resources Evaluation by Walton Manuals of standards and criteria of planning water resources projects- by economic commissions for Asia and far east, Bangkok

5 Why should we study water resources?

6 Water Scarcity in the World
2000 million people live under water stress by 2050(UNEP) 2 out of every 3 persons would live under water stress by 2025 By 2025, 1.8 billion people will live in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity Pollution, climate, desertification, water scarcity are the major issues in the next century. Wars would be fought for water Already happening in our own country

7 How wet is our planet? World Water Resources

8 Water availability in India Cubic km

9 Traditional Water Harvesting Marvels of India
Step wells in Gujarat Rajasthan


11 Debate on Small vrs Big dams
Dams - Temples of modern India-Nehru

12 River-linking Project: Physiography of the Region
Too much rain Too little rain River-linking Project: Physiography of the Region Major Diversion Routes

13 Design and construction of small dams
Watershed hydrology Design and construction of small dams Abutment Body wall Approach Key wall Toe Apron Side Wall

14 Irrigation and Scheduling and Types of Irrigation

15 Quality of water

16 Water contamination Leaky underground storage tanks
Poorly constructed landfills and septic systems Improperly abandoned mines and wells The overuse of fertilizers, pesticides, and road salts Runoff from livestock confinement areas Careless industrial and manufacturing organizations

17 Sea water intrusion The process by which over-pumping from an aquifer creates a flow imbalance within an area, which results in salt water encroaching into and contaminating a freshwater supply.

18 Urban Water harvesting

19 Stream and pumping well relationship

20 Ground water in hard rocks

21 Ground water depletion and other issues
Groundwater depletion has emerged as one of the most formidable consequences of agricultural development in the West Indian state of Gujarat over the last five decades The water levels in Mehsana are decreasing at an alarming rate of about 0.5 m in 1981 to 1.5 in 2000 to 3 m per year in 2015 and would further decrease to about 37 m in the next 15 years

22 Design of Ground Water Structures

23 Spacing of Wells


25 Ground water Management
Sustainability Demand side management Supply side management Groundwater management in the river basin context:

26 Sustainability Categorization of ground water development Based on Development in India Category Safe up to 70 % Semi Critical % Critical >90 % Over Exploited >100 %

27 Demand-side management:
The second step is to put in place an effective system for regulating withdrawals to sustainable levels; such system may include: Registration of users through a permit or license system; Creating appropriate laws and regulatory mechanisms; A system of pricing that aligns the incentives for groundwater use with the goal of sustainability; Promoting conjunctive use; Encouraging water saving devices

28 Supply-side management
The third aspect of managing groundwater is augmenting groundwater recharge through: [a] mass-based rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge programs and activities; [b] maximizing surface water use for recharge; [c] improving incentives for water conservation and artificial recharge

29 Groundwater management in the river basin context:
Groundwater interventions often tend to be too ‘local’ in their approach. like surface water, the groundwater resource too needs to be planned and managed for maximum basin-level efficiency.

30 Numerical & Modelling Techniques


32 Inundation mapping in Meshvo & vatrak River (200 years)


34 Geographical Information System (GIS)

35 Computer Applications


37 END

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