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Early Settlers Dutch settlers founded Capetown in 1652 Afrikaners
Name for Dutch settlers in South Africa Boer = Dutch Farmer
British British See Cape Town as a strategic location British seized territory, pushed Boers to north Great Trek- 10,000 Afrikaners migrate to north Boers move to the Orange Free State & Transvaal regions. (Zulu tribe lands) In 1800, British begin to move north into Boer territory in search of gold and diamonds
Gold and Diamonds!!! Made South Africa a valuable colony
Zulu-Anglo War (British) 1879
British colony felt threatened by the Zulu kingdom. British provoked an attack – 1,300 British troops killed in first day (Jan 22). British defeated Zulu army and divided the kingdom btwn 13 pro-British Zulu chiefs (July 4). Led to civil war among the Zulu.
Boer War (1899) Conflict between British and Boers over territory in South Africa British won in 3 years & became “mother country” of South Africa Boers continue to influence S. Africa Boers resent British rule Boers see Africans as inferior & destined to be slaves British law forbid slavery Britain give S. Africa independence in 1948
Apartheid in South Africa
Apartheid: “Apartness” Legal separation of blacks and whites in South Africa In S. Africa the 20% (white) population ruled the 80% (black) population
Apartheid Established by white minority: Dutch (Afrikaners)
South African laws allowing the white minority to rule over the black majority and separation of races. Blacks could not vote and had few rights
Race laws touched every aspect of life
Prohibition of marriage between non-whites & whites “White-only” jobs In 1950, the Population Registration Act classified people into three categories: white, black (African), or colored (of mixed descent or Indians and Asians). Classification was based on appearance, social acceptance, and descent.
Blacks were required to carry ``passbooks'' to travel within South Africa.
They contained fingerprints, photo and racial identification.
African reserves: “homelands”.
Many were shanty towns with the poorest facilities. Blacks were no longer citizens of South Africa denationalizing 19 million South Africans
In contrast, most whites in South Africa were prosperous (lived well)
Sharpeville Massacre In 1960, a large group of blacks in Sharpeville refused to carry their passes; the gov’t declared a state of emergency. The emergency lasted for 156 days, leaving 69 people dead and 187 people wounded.
Severe penalties for political protesters
During states of emergency ( ) anyone could be detained without a hearing for up to six months. Thousands of individuals died in custody, frequently after gruesome acts of torture. Trials resulted in the death sentence, exile, or life imprisonment.
Stephen Biko Emphasized “black consciousness”, pride in African culture, leaders, & self Died in police custody Became a martyr (person who dies for his beliefs) of the struggle against Apartheid Focused world attention on South Africa. International sanctions put pressure on the gov’t to change.
South African Leaders Steven Biko- black activist beaten to death in prison by white police officers Desmond Tutu- Bishop who made a speech to the UN about apartheid Nelson Mandela- leader of the ANC, fought to end apartheid in South Africa ANC – African National Congress
The apartheid policy was highly effective of achieving its goal of preferential treatment for whites
Soweto Township of nearly 1 million people Overcrowded
Homes made of mud and cardboard Diseases were rampant
Soweto Uprising 1976 15,000 school children
peacefully protested that Afrikaans was the language of the oppressor (keep down) 700 children were killed Over 4,000 wounded
Nelson Mandela Leader of the ANC: African National Congress
Urged use of violence in 1960’s Used non-violent methods in 1990’s: boycotts, strikes, civil disobedience and non-co-operation. He later threatened to return to violent methods.
Nelson Mandela Imprisoned in October from 1962 for treason
In prison for 27 years Became symbol of the anti-apartheid movement.
He was banned, arrested and imprisoned from 1964-1990 for treason & sabotage.
South Africa was banned from the Olympics from 1964 until 1992 “[It] embarrassed that country, and eventually caused them to open up their playing fields to black and white," Buerkle says. "It had an impact. The Olympics not letting them compete had an impact."
Global Influence to end apartheid 1980’s -90’s
Nations throughout the world imposed economic sanctions (trade penalties) on South Africa The world boycotted businesses that invested in South Africa Boycott of South African goods/products Nations refused S. Africa foreign aid ($) Finally in 1990, F.W. De Klerk unbanned the ANC and released Nelson Mandela
THe end of apartheid 1980’s -90’s
1980’s internationals pressure Nations imposed economic sanctions (trade penalties) on South Africa Refused to trade with South Africa Refused to buy from companies that produced in South Africa Banned from the Olympics
Free Mandela Mandela was a symbol of the anti-apartheid movement
Mandela released from prison in 1990
F.W.deKlerk & Nelson Mandela working together:
Ended Apartheid Wrote a new constitution based on “one man, one vote” Both awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. First fully democratic election held in 1994… Mandela elected President; deKlerk V.P.
In 1994 the first free multiracial elections were held
1994 1st multiracial elections took place Mandela elected president
South Africa Today Since 1994 it has been struggling to heal from years of apartheid. (Mandela dies in 2014) Race and equality are still a problem AIDS and HIV infection are a huge problem.
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