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Scaffolding: Your Key to Stability

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Presentation on theme: "Scaffolding: Your Key to Stability"— Presentation transcript:

1 Scaffolding: Your Key to Stability
Presented By: Georgia Tech Occupational Safety and Health Program

2 29 CFR 1926 Subpart L 1926.450 Scope and Application
General Requirements Additional Requirements Aerial Lifts Training Requirements Appendices A thru E

3 Most Frequently Cited Hazards
Scaffolds above 10 ft.-Fall Protection Scaffold Access Scaffold Working Levels-Decked Aerial Lift-Harness/Lanyard Training in use of scaffolds

4 National Statistics A significant percentage of personnel in construction (65) work from scaffolds routinely There are approximately 50 fatalities related to scaffolds each year. There are approximately 4500 employee injuries each year as a result of using scaffolds. For the period falls from scaffolds accounted for 17% of the fatalities for falls from elevations.

5 Georgia Statistics The total number of fall related fatalities in 2000 was 25. The number of fatalities involving scaffolds were 6. Falls from scaffolds represented twenty five percent of the total fatalities in the state

6 Hazards Injured workers revealed that 72% of the accidents were caused by: Platform failure Support failure Slipping Being struck by an object

7 Requirements for Competent Person
A competent person is a person on the project who has knowledge to identify and the authority to correct site hazards OSHA 10 or 30 hour training card could support the fact you had training and are knowledgeable The 10 or 30 hour OSHA training card alone does not necessarily mean you are a competent person

8 Requirements for Competent Person
Scaffolds have to be inspected daily by a competent person Scaffolds must be erected, moved, dismantled or altered under the supervision of a competent person Work by qualified workers selected by the competent person

9 Capacity 29 CFR (a) Each scaffold and scaffold component must be capable of supporting four times the intended weight. Direct connections to the roof and counterweights of suspended scaffolds must resist four times the tipping moment or 1.5 times tipping moment imposed by scaffold operating at stall load

10 Capacity 29 CFR (a) Suspension ropes including hardware must support six times the maximum intended load The stall load of any scaffold hoist shall not exceed three times its rated load. Scaffolds must be designed by a qualified person and loaded accordingly.

11 Platform Construction 29 CFR 1926.451(b)
All working levels of scaffolds are required to be fully decked. No gaps greater than one inch allowed Each scaffold platform shall be at least 48 inches wide. Ladder jack, roof bracket and pump jack can be 12 inches wide.

12 Platform Construction 29 CFR 1926.451(b)
The front edge shall not be more than 14 inches from face (if in excess rails required). The end of each platform will extend over the center line by six inches (unless hooked).

13 Platform Construction
Requirement for over hang based on length: 10 ft or less platform not to exceed 12 inches More than 10 ft not to exceed 18 inches For extended platforms overlap over supports by 12 inches (unless secured) Wood platforms shall not be covered with opaque finishes. Components (different) shall not be mixed unless they fit (integrity maintained).

14 Supported Scaffolds, 29 CFR 1926.451(c)
Scaffolds with a width to height of more than 4:1 need to be restrained Guys, ties, and braces installed in accordance to manufacturer Ties, guys, wires must be used for eccentric load

15 Supported Scaffolds, 29 CFR 1926.451(c)
Supported poles, legs, and posts need to bear on base plates and mudsills or other firm foundation. Footing must be rigid and sound. No unstable objects for supports or platform. Legs, posts, frames must be plumb and braced to prevent swaying.

16 Scaffold Access, 29 CFR 1926.451(e)
When scaffold platforms are 2 feet above or below a point of access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used. Cross braces can not be climbed. Ladders set up so not to tip scaffold. Stairway type ladders can be used in (e)(3) Railing has to be provided Ramps (e)(5) Rails over 6 feet No slope greater than 20 degrees

17 Scaffold Access Integral prefabricated scaffold access frames:
Designed and constructed as ladder rungs Rung length of 8 inches Uniform space Direct Access shall only be used when scaffold is not more than 14” horizontal and 24” vertical away. Safe means of access shall be provided during erecting or dismantling as determined by competent person.

18 Scaffold Use (f) Scaffolds shall not be excessively loaded Inspection by competent person before each shift Damaged scaffold immediately repaired or replaced. Maintain adequate distance from power lines (3 ft for less than 300 V and 10 ft for greater than 300) Must not work on slippery platforms, debris or during high winds. Standing on objects to increase height prohibited. Ladder may be used on wide area scaffold.

19 Scaffold Use Scaffolds must be inspected before use each shift by competent person. All damaged components must be repaired or replaced immediately.

20 Fall Protection, 29 CFR 1926.451(g)
Required on all scaffolds greater than 10 feet. Boatswains chair,float scaffold or similar require fall arrest. Suspension scaffold requires rails and fall arrest system (independent life line). Rail system design: Top rail installed between 38 and 45 inches mid rail between top and working surface Finished components must with stand: A force 200 pounds for top rail 150 pounds for mid rail

21 Fall Protection Guardrails must be free of sharp edges.
Ends of rails must be constructed so it does overhang the terminal posts Steel or plastic bands are not acceptable as railing Cross brace may be used as a mid rail if it meets the height requirement (cross between inches) Falling object requirements are: Employees on scaffold(in addition to hard hats) must be protected by toe boards, debris nets or canopy Area below must be protected by barricades, canopies, toe boards on scaffolds over 10 feet Toe boards- withstand 50 pounds of force and be 3.5 inches wide.

22 Additional Scaffolds-Supported, 29 CFR 1926.452
Tube and coupler: The existing platform shall not be moved until bearers are set X bracing installation Couplers have to made of structural steel Scaffolding over 125 ft. have to be designed by registered engineer Fabricated Frame: The existing platform shall remain until the frames are set/braced Frames and panels shall be braced (joined with stack pin Scaffolding over 125 ft. have to be designed by registered engineer

23 Additional Scaffold-Supported
Horse scaffolds: Limited to two tiers (10 ft.) Horses arranged directly over each other Legs nailed down and tiers braced Crawling boards: Extend from peak to eaves and secured to roof by ridge hooks or equivalent Pump jack scaffolds: Bracket must have two positive grips Poles secured at the top and bottom Work bench is not a platform Continuous length poles joined at seam parallel to bracket Mending plates must be installed at 2X4 splices for strength

24 Additional Scaffolds-Supported
Ladder jack scaffolds: Not to exceed 20 feet Ladder meet requirement of part X No bridging of platform Ladders must be provided with device to prevent slipping Constructed to bear on side rails and rungs or rungs (if rungs at length of 10 inches) Window jack scaffold: Attached to window opening and not used to place planks between scaffolds Step, trestle, and ladder scaffolds: Platform not placed higher than second highest rung and ladder secured Ladders designed to part X

25 Additional Requirements-Suspended
Swing Stages: Platform limited to 36” Platform must be securely fastened to hangars Platforms shall be of the ladder, plank, or beam type Two point scaffolds shall not be bridged together unless bridged and hoist is appropriately sized Multi level scaffolds: Equipped with independent support lines (equal to number of suspension points) and not attached to the same point as suspension ropes Supports for platform attached to stirrup only

26 Additional Requirements-Mobile
Requirements for mobile scaffolds: Adequately plumbed, braced, level and squared Must have means to lock wheels/casters Force to move scaffold no higher than 5 feet above support surface Power system must be designed for scaffold Stabilized to prevent tip Platform must not extend base support without outriggers Caster stems-pinned Riding not allowed unless: surface floor level and free of debris and 2:1 BXH ratio Outriggers on both sides No one allowed on extended platform

27 Additional Requirement-Stilts
Only to be used on large area scaffold Surfaces must be flat and free of pits No obstructions Stilts have to be maintained Guardrails must be raised by an amount equal to stilts

28 Requirements for Aerial Lifts 29 CFR 1926.453
Meet the design criteria of ANSI Aerial ladders must be secured in lower traveling position by a locking device before it is moved. Ext./Art. Platforms: Boom must be adequately stowed before move Insulated portion must not be altered A body belt or harness and lanyard must be used Employees must stand on floor of basket Never exceed load capacity Lift truck shall not be moved with men in basket unless adequately designed (upper controls-personnel carriers) Brakes set for outrigger use (wheels chock)

29 Aerial Lifts Extensible and articulating platforms:
Lift controls must be tested each day Authorized employees only No belting off to adjacent structure All pneumatic and hydraulic components comply with ANSI A and non critical parts must have burst factor 2:1.

30 Training-General 29 CFR Employees must receive training from qualified person that includes: Nature of electrical, fall, and falling items Use of scaffold/handling Maximum intended load and load carrying capabilities of scaffold Methods for dealing with electrical hazards and fall protection system Requirements of sub L

31 Training-Setup or Dismantling
Employees must be trained in: Nature of scaffold hazards Procedures for setup, dismantling or moving the system Design criteria, maximum intended load carrying capacities and use of scaffold Requirements of subpart L

32 Training-Need for Retraining
When the employer has reason to believe an employee lacks the skill or understanding needed for safe work involving scaffolds, retraining shall be performed until proficiency is regained. Retraining is required: When additional or new hazards exist. Changes in the type of scaffold and fall protection exist. Where there are inadequacies in an employee’s work.

33 Resources Scaffolding Industry Association
29 CFR NAHB-OSHA Job Site Safety Handbook Construction Industry Digest Scaffolding Industry Association American National Standards Institute A92 (SIA): Scaffolds and other elevating devices

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