Presentation on theme: "Scaffolding: Your Key to Stability"— Presentation transcript:
1 Scaffolding: Your Key to Stability Presented By: Georgia Tech Occupational Safety and Health Program
2 29 CFR 1926 Subpart L 1926.450 Scope and Application General RequirementsAdditional RequirementsAerial LiftsTraining RequirementsAppendices A thru E
3 Most Frequently Cited Hazards Scaffolds above 10 ft.-Fall ProtectionScaffold AccessScaffold Working Levels-DeckedAerial Lift-Harness/LanyardTraining in use of scaffolds
4 National StatisticsA significant percentage of personnel in construction (65) work from scaffolds routinelyThere are approximately 50 fatalities related to scaffolds each year.There are approximately 4500 employee injuries each year as a result of using scaffolds.For the period falls from scaffolds accounted for 17% of the fatalities for falls from elevations.
5 Georgia StatisticsThe total number of fall related fatalities in 2000 was 25.The number of fatalities involving scaffolds were 6.Falls from scaffolds represented twenty five percent of the total fatalities in the state
6 HazardsInjured workers revealed that 72% of the accidents were caused by:Platform failureSupport failureSlippingBeing struck by an object
7 Requirements for Competent Person A competent person is a person on the project who has knowledge to identify and the authority to correct site hazardsOSHA 10 or 30 hour training card could support the fact you had training and are knowledgeableThe 10 or 30 hour OSHA training card alone does not necessarily mean you are a competent person
8 Requirements for Competent Person Scaffolds have to be inspected daily by a competent personScaffolds must be erected, moved, dismantled or altered under the supervision of a competent personWork by qualified workers selected by the competent person
9 Capacity 29 CFR (a)Each scaffold and scaffold component must be capable of supporting four times the intended weight.Direct connections to the roof and counterweights of suspended scaffolds must resist four times the tipping moment or 1.5 times tipping moment imposed by scaffold operating at stall load
10 Capacity 29 CFR (a)Suspension ropes including hardware must support six times the maximum intended loadThe stall load of any scaffold hoist shall not exceed three times its rated load.Scaffolds must be designed by a qualified person and loaded accordingly.
11 Platform Construction 29 CFR 1926.451(b) All working levels of scaffolds are required to be fully decked.No gaps greater than one inch allowedEach scaffold platform shall be at least 48 inches wide.Ladder jack, roof bracket and pump jack can be 12 inches wide.
12 Platform Construction 29 CFR 1926.451(b) The front edge shall not be more than 14 inches from face (if in excess rails required).The end of each platform will extend over the center line by six inches (unless hooked).
13 Platform Construction Requirement for over hang based on length:10 ft or less platform not to exceed 12 inchesMore than 10 ft not to exceed 18 inchesFor extended platforms overlap over supports by 12 inches (unless secured)Wood platforms shall not be covered with opaque finishes.Components (different) shall not be mixed unless they fit (integrity maintained).
14 Supported Scaffolds, 29 CFR 1926.451(c) Scaffolds with a width to height of more than 4:1 need to be restrainedGuys, ties, and braces installed in accordance to manufacturerTies, guys, wires must be used for eccentric load
15 Supported Scaffolds, 29 CFR 1926.451(c) Supported poles, legs, and posts need to bear on base plates and mudsills or other firm foundation.Footing must be rigid and sound.No unstable objects for supports or platform.Legs, posts, frames must be plumb and braced to prevent swaying.
16 Scaffold Access, 29 CFR 1926.451(e) When scaffold platforms are 2 feet above or below a point of access ladders, stair towers or personnel hoist must be used.Cross braces can not be climbed.Ladders set up so not to tip scaffold.Stairway type ladders can be used in (e)(3)Railing has to be providedRamps (e)(5)Rails over 6 feetNo slope greater than 20 degrees
17 Scaffold Access Integral prefabricated scaffold access frames: Designed and constructed as ladder rungsRung length of 8 inchesUniform spaceDirect Access shall only be used when scaffold is not more than 14” horizontal and 24” vertical away.Safe means of access shall be provided during erecting or dismantling as determined by competent person.
18 Scaffold Use (f)Scaffolds shall not be excessively loadedInspection by competent person before each shiftDamaged scaffold immediately repaired or replaced.Maintain adequate distance from power lines (3 ft for less than 300 V and 10 ft for greater than 300)Must not work on slippery platforms, debris or during high winds.Standing on objects to increase height prohibited.Ladder may be used on wide area scaffold.
19 Scaffold UseScaffolds must be inspected before use each shift by competent person.All damaged components must be repaired or replaced immediately.
20 Fall Protection, 29 CFR 1926.451(g) Required on all scaffolds greater than 10 feet.Boatswains chair,float scaffold or similar require fall arrest.Suspension scaffold requires rails and fall arrest system (independent life line).Rail system design:Top rail installed between 38 and 45 inchesmid rail between top and working surfaceFinished components must with stand:A force 200 pounds for top rail150 pounds for mid rail
21 Fall Protection Guardrails must be free of sharp edges. Ends of rails must be constructed so it does overhang the terminal postsSteel or plastic bands are not acceptable as railingCross brace may be used as a mid rail if it meets the height requirement (cross between inches)Falling object requirements are:Employees on scaffold(in addition to hard hats) must be protected by toe boards, debris nets or canopyArea below must be protected by barricades, canopies, toe boards on scaffolds over 10 feetToe boards- withstand 50 pounds of force and be 3.5 inches wide.
22 Additional Scaffolds-Supported, 29 CFR 1926.452 Tube and coupler:The existing platform shall not be moved until bearers are setX bracing installationCouplers have to made of structural steelScaffolding over 125 ft. have to be designed by registered engineerFabricated Frame:The existing platform shall remain until the frames are set/bracedFrames and panels shall be braced (joined with stack pinScaffolding over 125 ft. have to be designed by registered engineer
23 Additional Scaffold-Supported Horse scaffolds:Limited to two tiers (10 ft.)Horses arranged directly over each otherLegs nailed down and tiers bracedCrawling boards:Extend from peak to eaves and secured to roof by ridge hooks or equivalentPump jack scaffolds:Bracket must have two positive gripsPoles secured at the top and bottomWork bench is not a platformContinuous length poles joined at seam parallel to bracketMending plates must be installed at 2X4 splices for strength
24 Additional Scaffolds-Supported Ladder jack scaffolds:Not to exceed 20 feetLadder meet requirement of part XNo bridging of platformLadders must be provided with device to prevent slippingConstructed to bear on side rails and rungs or rungs (if rungs at length of 10 inches)Window jack scaffold:Attached to window opening and not used to place planks between scaffoldsStep, trestle, and ladder scaffolds:Platform not placed higher than second highest rung and ladder securedLadders designed to part X
25 Additional Requirements-Suspended Swing Stages:Platform limited to 36”Platform must be securely fastened to hangarsPlatforms shall be of the ladder, plank, or beam typeTwo point scaffolds shall not be bridged together unless bridged and hoist is appropriately sizedMulti level scaffolds:Equipped with independent support lines (equal to number of suspension points) and not attached to the same point as suspension ropesSupports for platform attached to stirrup only
26 Additional Requirements-Mobile Requirements for mobile scaffolds:Adequately plumbed, braced, level and squaredMust have means to lock wheels/castersForce to move scaffold no higher than 5 feet above support surfacePower system must be designed for scaffoldStabilized to prevent tipPlatform must not extend base support without outriggersCaster stems-pinnedRiding not allowed unless:surface floor level and free of debris and 2:1 BXH ratioOutriggers on both sidesNo one allowed on extended platform
27 Additional Requirement-Stilts Only to be used on large area scaffoldSurfaces must be flat and free of pitsNo obstructionsStilts have to be maintainedGuardrails must be raised by an amount equal to stilts
28 Requirements for Aerial Lifts 29 CFR 1926.453 Meet the design criteria of ANSIAerial ladders must be secured in lower traveling position by a locking device before it is moved.Ext./Art. Platforms:Boom must be adequately stowed before moveInsulated portion must not be alteredA body belt or harness and lanyard must be usedEmployees must stand on floor of basketNever exceed load capacityLift truck shall not be moved with men in basket unless adequately designed (upper controls-personnel carriers)Brakes set for outrigger use (wheels chock)
29 Aerial Lifts Extensible and articulating platforms: Lift controls must be tested each dayAuthorized employees onlyNo belting off to adjacent structureAll pneumatic and hydraulic components comply with ANSI A and non critical parts must have burst factor 2:1.
30 Training-General 29 CFREmployees must receive training from qualified person that includes:Nature of electrical, fall, and falling itemsUse of scaffold/handlingMaximum intended load and load carrying capabilities of scaffoldMethods for dealing with electrical hazards and fall protection systemRequirements of sub L
31 Training-Setup or Dismantling Employees must be trained in:Nature of scaffold hazardsProcedures for setup, dismantling or moving the systemDesign criteria, maximum intended load carrying capacities and use of scaffoldRequirements of subpart L
32 Training-Need for Retraining When the employer has reason to believe an employee lacks the skill or understanding needed for safe work involving scaffolds, retraining shall be performed until proficiency is regained. Retraining is required:When additional or new hazards exist.Changes in the type of scaffold and fall protection exist.Where there are inadequacies in an employee’s work.
33 Resources www.osha.gov Scaffolding Industry Association 29 CFRNAHB-OSHA Job Site Safety HandbookConstruction Industry DigestScaffolding Industry AssociationAmerican National Standards InstituteA92 (SIA): Scaffolds and other elevating devices