Ladder Selection-Material Fiberglass: Nonconductive, which makes it a good choice when working around electricity. It is also corrosion resistant and ideal for outdoor use. Aluminum: Lightweight, but not for use when contact with electricity is possible. It is easy to maneuver when frequent handling is required. Wood: Nonconductive, which makes it a good choice for working around electricity. It is an economical choice for heavy maintenance and construction.
Ladder Selection-Size Stepladders – No more than 20 feet high Ladder SizeMaximum Standing Height 4 feet 2 feet 6 feet4 feet 8 feet6 feet 10 feet8 feet 12 feet10 feet Avoid standing on top two (2) steps
Ladder Selection-Size Extension Ladders - No more than 60 feet Normal Length Overlap required Up to and including 36 3 feet Over 36, up to and including 484 feet Over 48, up to 605 feet Maximum working height – Avoid using the top four (4) rungs
Ladder Inspection Rungs must be intact and clean, especially free from grease and oil. Make sure there are no splinters or sharp edges. See that metal ladders are not dented or bent. Make sure the hinge spreader works properly. All support braces and bolts must be secure. Ensure rope is not frayed or badly worn on extension ladders. Safety feet and auxiliary devices functional.
Ladder Set-Up An important part of fall protection is the proper use of ladders. Keep the ladder at angle that your feet touch the base, when your outstretched arm touches the rungs. Erect on solid level surface. Never place in front of door unless door is secured. Stepladder – ensure the spreader is locked.
Ladder Set-Up Cont. Tie-off (lash) top and bottom if no one is available to hold to prevent slipping. Extension – extend ladder 3 feet above support if used to access roof or other elevated surfaces. Extension – use the ¼ rule (for every 4 feet in height, move 1 foot at base).
Ladder Safety Always have three points of contact when climbing (two feet/one hand or two hand/one foot). Test pulleys, springs, rung locks and ropes on extension ladders. Wear slip resistant type shoes with heels. Do not carry objects up and down the ladder. Raise and lower needed tools and materials with a rope or bucket. Maintain the center line of your body between the ladder’s vertical support rails while working.
Ladder Maintenance & Storage It’s best to hang a ladder horizontally on wall hooks in a dry place not subject to temperature extremes and direct sunlight. Metal bearings of locks, wheels, pulleys, etc., shall be frequently lubricated. Have repair work done only by a competent repair shop. If there is major damage – discard.
Scaffold Safety OSHA standard, 1926.450 Scaffold Platform: no more than 1” gaps maximum openings of 9½” scaffold platforms and walkways 18” wide ladder jack, top plate bracket, roof bracket, and pump jack scaffold at least 12” wide On direction changes, any platform on a bearer at other than a right angle shall be laid first, and platforms which rest at right angles over the same bearer laid second.
Scaffold Safety Capacity: support own weight and 4 X the maximum intended load. suspension rope & hardware, 6 X the maximum intended load. stall load of scaffold hoist not to exceed 3 times its rated load. designed by a qualified person and built and loaded to design.
Scaffold Safety Scaffold Foundations: Scaffolds must have base plates, even when setting on a concrete floor. Also, the lack of a base plate could damage the scaffold leg.
Scaffold Safety Scaffold Foundations Cont. Scaffold legs must be set on base plates and adequate mudsills. There is no base plate and the scrap plywood is not adequate. The scaffold frame could penetrate the plywood.
Scaffold Safety Scaffolds Foundations Cont. Scaffolds should never be set on bricks, masonry blocks, etc. These are not structural elements and could crush under the scaffold load.
Good Foundations Mason’s Adjustable Hydro-mobile Frames Good Foundations
Scaffold Safety Criteria for supported scaffolds: Higher than 4:1 ratio restrained from tipping by guys, ties, or equivalent. Guys, ties, installed per recommendations or at the closest horizontal member to the 4:1 height Bear on adequate foundations Plumbed and braced
Scaffold Safety Access: Must have safe access No access by cross braces Bottom rung not more than 24” high Rest platforms at 35’ intervals Sets access requirements for erectors and dismantlers Can use some end frames for access
Scaffold Safety Fall protection(PFAS or guardrails) Required at 10 foot PFAS in lieu of guardrails on some scaffolds PFAS & guardrails on suspension scaffolds PFAS required for erectors and dismantlers were feasible after September 2, 1997. Toprails after 1-1-2000, 38” to 45” high Use crossbracing in lieu of top or midrails in some cases
Excavation Safety OSHA Standard, 1926.651 Hazards of Excavation Works: Cave-ins Separation of a mass of soil or rock material from the side of an excavation. Underground Utilities Determining approximate location Determining exact location Contacting local utility companies Materials/Equipment into excavation sites
Excavation Safety Access & Egress: Structural ramps designed by competent person Egress (ladder, stairs) from trenches over 4 feet deep Ramps must be structurally sound and not create a tripping hazard Use surface treatments on ramps to prevent slipping
Excavation Safety Access & Egress: Means of egress must be within 25 feet of workers Ladders must extend a minimum of 36 inches above the landing Use metal ladders with caution around utilities
Excavation Safety Inspections - Worker Exposure Daily - prior to work, conducted by competent person As needed - during work when competent person determines a hazardous condition exists (employees are removed until precautions are taken) After rainstorm or other hazard increasing occurrence
Excavation Safety Protective Systems Cont. Protective systems are not needed if the excavation is: made in stable rock less than 5 feet deep Protective systems must be able to resist all loads
Excavation Safety Sloping and Benching Requirements by Soil Type: Soil or Rock Type Maximum Allowable Slope for Excavations less than 20’ Stable RockVertical (90 Deg.) Type A¾ to 1 (53 Deg.) Type B1 to 1 (45 Deg.) Type C1 ½ to 1 (34 Deg.)