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Scaffold User Training

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Presentation on theme: "Scaffold User Training"— Presentation transcript:

1 Scaffold User Training
Supported Scaffolds Scaffold User Training

2 Scaffold Hazards The danger of falling is most common.
Ladders and Scaffolds Scaffold Hazards The danger of falling is most common. 9% of construction deaths are scaffold-related Scaffold falls injure 29,000 workers every year. 47% of all scaffold catastrophes and deaths are caused by defective scaffolds. Any missing or defective part makes a scaffold less safe.

3 Ladders and Scaffolds 15 X & L Subpart L - Scaffolds : Scope, application and definitions : General requirements Covers the basic variables : Specific requirements For each type of scaffold : Aerial lifts : Training Anyone who works from a scaffold or who erects scaffolds must have training. 7

4 How Do We Know a Scaffold Is Safe?
Supported scaffolds must have these features:


6 (w) "Mobile scaffolds"

7 1926.452(b) “Tube & coupler scaffolds”

8 1926.450 definitions applicable to subpart
Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are hazardous or dangerous to employees, and who has the authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.(CPL )

9 .451 General Requirements For All Scaffolds
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 17 X & L .451 General Requirements For All Scaffolds (a) Capacity Support its own weight and 4 X the Maximum Intended Load (MIL). Designed by a Qualified Person and built and loaded to design. Some Criteria listed in Appendix 'A' 8

10 (b) Platform Construction
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 20 X & L (b) Platform Construction Platforms fully planked or decked Maximum 1” gaps Maximum openings of 9½” if necessary Platforms and walkways minimum 18” wide Guardrails and/or Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) for < 18” wide Planks laid at angles other than 90º laid first under planks laid over supports at 90 º 9

11 9 1/2 ” 1” MAX


13 What Makes a Safe Platform?
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 21 X & L What Makes a Safe Platform? Fully planked with scaffold-grade wood or metal.

14 Scaffold Platform Construction
Front of scaffold no more than 14 inches from face of work For outrigger scaffolds 3 inches Unless secured platforms extend minimum of six inches over support 6"




18 Platform Construction
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 27 Platform Construction X & L Don’t paint wood, except ID on edges Fully planked between front upright & guardrails Don’t mix scaffold components used unless compatible & strength is maintained [Competent Person decision] Don’t modify mixed scaffold components to make them fit [C.P. decision] No components of dissimilar metals without Competent Person approval Inspect, Inspect, Inspect 12

19 Tie-Ins to the Building
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 30 X & L Tie-Ins to the Building This 6-tier scaffold is is anchored to the building with rope through windows. A solid strut anchor is better, especially if not dependent upon friction attachments at both ends.

20 1926.451 (c) Supported Scaffolds
Guys, ties or braces required at the 4:1height ratio Repeated every 20 feet for scaffolds three feet wide or less Every 26 feet wider than three feet Installed at each end of the scaffold Horizontal spacing not to exceed 30 feet


22 (c) (1) (ii) 30 feet 30 feet

23 Plumb, Level, Square You can visually check scaffold alignment.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 34 X & L Plumb, Level, Square You can visually check scaffold alignment. Plumb: Vertical members stand perpendicular to horizon. Square: Horizontal and vertical members form right angles where they connect. Level: Horizontal members are parallel to horizon.

24 Foundation and Load Distribution?
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 35 X & L Foundation and Load Distribution?

25 Supported Scaffolds Bracing required to prevent tipping for all eccentric applied loads Scaffolds must bear on base plates and mud sills or other firm foundation Footings rigid with no settling or displacement

26 1926.451 General Requirements (c) Criteria for supported scaffolds (2) Base plates mud sills

27 1926.451 (c) Supported Scaffolds
Unstable objects shall not be used to support scaffolds or platform units. Unstable objects shall not be used as working platforms.


29 1926.451 (c) Supported Scaffolds
Poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights plumb and braced

30 What’s the Best Way to Load the Scaffold?
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 37 X & L What’s the Best Way to Load the Scaffold? Distribute loads evenly. Point load over uprights. Point Loading - When necessary, it should be done over uprights. Evenly distributed – A good practice! An unsafe practice!

31 (e) Access Scaffold more than two feet above or below a point of access ladders, stairs, ramps or other similar access provided No cross braces for access! Hook on ladders positioned so as not to tip the scaffold Bottom rung within 24 inches of supporting level Over 35 feet, rest levels every 35 feet

32 1926.451 (e) Access Hook-on ladders compatible with scaffold used
Minimum rung width of 11 1/2 inches Rungs uniformly spaced 16 3/4 inches maximum rung spacing Slip resistant treads on stairs and landings


34 1926.451 (e) Access Prefabricated scaffold access:
specifically designed and constructed for use as ladder rungs; Have a rung length of at least 8 inches Uniformly spaced Max. spacing 16 3/4 inches ** fixed ladders must have fall protection if length of climb is 24’ or greater.** ** landing ‘rest’ platforms required on fixed ladders at maximum intervals of 50’**

35 Use No loading in excess of intended or rated load
Lean-to scaffolds prohibited CP to inspect for defects each shift Damaged scaffold repaired, replaced or braced

36 USE No makeshift devices to increase height
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 47 X & L USE No makeshift devices to increase height The 'Drywall Bucket Rule' No ladder to increase height except on 'large area' and: Side thrust countered, platform secured Ladder legs on same platform & secured Platforms not to deflect > 1/60 of span

37 Use No moving of scaffolds with employees on them unless designed by PE for such Must decend mobile scaffolds prior to moving, and lock casters when in position. Safe distance from electric lines: Insulated lines: Less than 300 volts = 3 feet 300 volts to 50 kilovolts = 10 feet Over 50 kilovolts = 10 feet plus .4 inches for each additional kV; or twice the length of the line insulator but never less than 10 feet

38 Use Scaffolds erected, moved, dismantled, or altered only under the supervision and direction of a competent person qualified in scaffolds Access scaffolds with snow/ice only to remove Swinging loads near scaffolds must use tag lines

39 Debris shall not be allowed to accumulate on platforms.

40 .454 Training Requirements
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 73 X & L .454 Training Requirements Your employer must train you.

41 Fall Protection Required at 10 foot height
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 48 X & L Fall Protection Required at 10 foot height PFAS instead of guardrails on some Fall protection required when scaffold is greater than 14” away from work surface PFAS for erectors/dismantlers where feasible Toprails height = 38” to 45” Crossbracing ‘X’ as top or midrail depending on height 19

42 (g)(4)(xv) Top 38”- 40” 48” Max Mid 20”- 30”

43 Cross bracing in Guardrail Systems

44 Guardrails Guardrails prevent work falls.
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 49 X & L Guardrails Guardrails prevent work falls. Only 33% of the scaffolds involved in accidents had guardrails. Ideal height is 38 inches above work platform. OSHA requires fall protection on platforms 10 feet or higher. Top rail must withstand a force of 200 pounds (or 100 pounds on suspension scaffolds).

45 (g) Fall Protection Guardrail systems shall be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms. Guardrail systems installed before scaffold is released for use by employees other than erection/dismantling crews.

46 (h) Falling Object Protection
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 53 X & L (h) Falling Object Protection Hardhats required Protect employees below Barricades to exclude working below Toe boards at edges of platforms Allows panels and screens Canopies allowed 20

47 Toeboard Options Using extra planks on edge: Job-made w/1"x 6" lumber:
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 54 X & L Toeboard Options Using extra planks on edge: Wire in place Maintain max. gap of ¼" Wire or nail ends in place Job-made w/1"x 6" lumber: Wire/nail/cleat in place Lighter, easier to handle

48 Electrical Hazards Ladders and Scaffolds
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 54 X & L Electrical Hazards Scaffolds shall remain a minimum of 10 feet away from energized power lines. All power tools and equipment shall be plugged into a GFCI Temporary lighting shall not be connected to the scaffold system by metal components


50 Mobile Scaffolds3 Plumb; Level square; Braces secured
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 58 X & L Mobile Scaffolds3 Plumb; Level square; Braces secured Cross, horizontal & diagonal braces to prevent racking or collapse Mobile scaffolds must comply with other frame requirements Castors - positive lock on wheel and/or swivel

51 SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 59 X & L Mobile Scaffolds2 Horizontal and diagonal bracing required to prevent “racking”. Most manufacturers provide with fixed length.










61 Fatal fact Bricklaying crew working on the upper floor of a three-story building built a six-foot platform spanning a gap between two scaffolds. The platform was correctly constructed of two 2”X12” planks with standard guardrails; however, one of the planks was not scaffold grade lumber and also had extensive dry rot in the center. when a bricklayer stepped on the plank it disintegrated and he fell 30 feet to his death.

62 Fatal fact Two employees were installing aluminum siding on a farm house when it became necessary to remove a 36-foot high metal pole CB antenna. One employee stood on a metal pick board between two ladders and unfastened the antenna at the top of the house. The other employee who was standing on the ground, took the antenna to lay it down in the yard. The antenna made electrical contact with a 7200-volt power transmission line 30 feet 10 inches from the house and 23 feet 9 inches above the ground. The employee handling the antenna received a fatal shock and the other employee a minor shock.

63 Protect Yourself With Good Practice
SUBPARTS Ladders and Scaffolds 71 X & L Protect Yourself With Good Practice Don’t allow tools, materials, or debris to collect on scaffold. Never, never throw or drop tools, materials, or equipment. Make sure connections are in place and completely tight. Do not stand on ties. Do not stand on guardrails or plank extensions. Do not overreach outside of the guardrails.

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