Presentation on theme: "6/9/2018 Growing Beyond: An Introduction to Adolescent Girls with Sexually Abusive Behavior Susan Robinson June 4, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
1 6/9/2018Growing Beyond: An Introduction to Adolescent Girls with Sexually Abusive BehaviorSusan RobinsonJune 4, 2013
2 Objectives Understand the literature specific to this population. 6/9/2018ObjectivesUnderstand the literature specific to this population.Provide overview of assessment and risk considerations.Review clinical needs and treatment goals.1. Research needs to guide practice2.Female adolescent development: Because by understanding development wecan better understand and have compassion for the girls we work with.Many probation officers, therapists, dislike working with girls because thy areconsidered high maintenance. Trade line.3. Motivation of sexually abusive girls4. Differences between sexually abusive girls and boys.5.Typologies, assessment and treatment needs and goals.Main Points:Female offending may be more relationally based; The dynamics and processwhen working with females is different.
3 6/9/2018StatisticsIn the USA:209 females under age 18 arrested for forcible rape5,337 females under 18 arrested for other sexual offenses (excluding prostitution)(FBI, 2009)1. Generally, juveniles females account for 2% of rapes and 9% of other sex offenses (Snyder &Sickmund, 2006).2. Cortoni & Hanson: this prevalence based on official records and victimization studies fromCanada, UK, USA, Australia, and New Zealand. Women are responsible for between 4% and5% of all sexual offenses (Cortoni & Hanson, 2005; Cortoni, Hanson, & Coache, 2010).
4 Research Limitations Few studies or comparison studies 6/9/2018Research LimitationsFew studies or comparison studiesSmall sample sizesLack of statistical analysisUnrepresentative samplesPoor generalizabilityReliability/validity concerns with archival dataLimitations of self-reported dataOne of the largest sample sizes include = N = 271 for Ray & English, 1995 –34 sexually aggressive juvenile females compared to 237 sexually aggressive juvenile males.Intensive case file review. Reliability of the data is dependent on the accuracy of caseworkercase file recording.Vandiver (2010): N=177 juvenile boys compared with n=177 juvenile girls.Hunter (1993): Sample size of 10 – residential treatment programGeneralizability: Kubik, Becker, & Righthand: Sample size 11 – all from Maine DOC
5 Sexual Victimization Histories of Sexually Abusive Girls 6/9/2018Sexual Victimization Histories of Sexually Abusive GirlsGender appears to be the area of greatest difference:Hickey et al. (2008): Sample size 22 female and 254 male juveniles. UKcommunity based treatment.2. Kubik, Hecker, & Righthand (2002): Sample size 11. All from Maine DOC.Compared to sexually abusive male adolescents (11) and adolescent females withnon-sexual victim-involved offense histories.3. Miccio-Fonseca (2000): Sample size = 18 (adults and adolescent femalescombined). Compared to sexually abusive males (n=332) and non-sexoffending females (n=215).4. Mathews, Hunter, & Vuz (1997): Sample of 67 girls from outpatient andresidential treatment compared to 70 boys from same settings. Study islimited due to the reliance on retrospective and self-reported data, anddifferences in sampling procedures b/tw comparison groups.5. Bumby & Bumby (1997): Sample of 12 sexually abusive girls from aninpatient facility for emotionally and behaviorally disordered children andadolescents. Descriptive study: Examination of existing records.Latter comparison study of 18 s.o. girls and 18 s.o. boys, 36 non-offendingfemales and 24 nonoffending males.GirlsBoysStudy96%70%Hickey et al., 200864%50%Kubik et al., 200272%Miccio-Fonseca, 200078%43%Mathews et al., 1997100%63%Bumby & Bumby, 1997
6 Sexual Victimization Histories 6/9/2018Sexual Victimization HistoriesDescriptive studies72.7% - 100% had sexual abuse histories(Weedon, 2011; Howley, 2001;Hunter et al., 1993; Johnson, 1989).Weedon (2011): Sample of 54 girls from community based agency.Secondary data from client records of girls with HSB: Time period from 1993 to 2011.2. Howley (2001): Sample size 66 girls in a residential treatment program.Descriptive study/case review. No comparison sample.3. Hunter et al. (1993): 10 girls in residential treatment. Descriptive study.4. Johnson (1989): 13 girls age Descriptive study. In her study in 1988 onboys, only 49% had been sexually abused.***In one recent study, a history of SCA was the single most significant predictivevariable for sexually abusive behavior for girls (Sigurdsson, Gudjonsson,Asgeirsdottir & Sigfusdottir, 2010).
7 Sexual Victimization Histories 6/9/2018Sexual Victimization HistoriesOften abused at young agesOften victimized by multiple perpetratorsOften sexually abused repeatedly and severelyMathews et al.: 64% of girls prior to age 5 vs. 25.8% of boys (Mathews et al.)Hickey et al.: Median age 4 for girls vs. 7 for boys (Hickey et al.)Miccio-Fonseca, 2000: 54% of girls prior to age 6 vs. 33% of boysHowley: Median age 3.8Hunter et al.: Median age 4.5Kubik et al: Mean number of perpetrators for girls was 4.83 vs for boys.Mathews et al.: Mean number of perpetrators for girls was 4.5 vs. 1.4 for boys.Hickey et al.: Median number for girls was 3.5 vs. 1 for boysHowley: 74% of girls abused by two or more perpetrators (Howley).Hunter et al: Mean number of perpetrators for girls was 5 (ranging from 2-7)In the Hickey et al. study they also found that being a female, as opposed to a malejuvenile with sexually abusive behavior, is predicted by having a higher numberof perpetrators of their own sexual victimization history (Hickey et al. 2008).Kubik et al.: 75% of girls had been victimized three or more times vs. 20% of boys.71.4% endured anal or vaginal penetration vs. 22.2% of boysMathews et al: 72.5% of girls reported being the victim of force and aggression vs. 45.2% of the boys.
8 Sexual Victimization Histories 6/9/2018Sexual Victimization HistoriesMany girls have been abused by female perpetrators.Girls more often abused by relatives and/or both relatives and acquaintances(Hickey et al.)Hunter et al.: 60% of girls had been abused by a female perpetrator.Howley: A female perpetrator abused 32% of the girls.Hickey et al.: Girls were more likely than boys to be abused by both females andmales (57.1% vs. 30.1%)Mathews et al.: 3x as many girls than boys reported having been sexually abused by afemale perpetrator.***In the Hickey et al. study:Girls were more often than boys abused by relatives (85.7% vs. 57.4%) and moreoften than boys abused by both relatives and acquaintances (57.1% vs. 28.4%).In Weedon’s study, 34.1% experienced both extrafamilial and intrafamilial CSA.
9 Other Maltreatment Histories 6/9/2018Other Maltreatment HistoriesFemale adolescents “are more likely to have been maltreated in a variety of ways compared to their male counterparts”Physical abuse (63.6% vs. 40%)Neglect (70% vs. 36.4%)Exposure to family violence (62.5% vs. 22.2%)Kubik et al.Physical Abuse:Mathew’s et al: 60% physical abuse vs. 44.9% of boys.Howley’s study: 82% physical abuse.Ray & English: 90% of girls vs. 80.2% of boys had physical abuse histories.Bumby & Bumby: 75% physical abuseNeglect:Weedon: 77.3% emotional abuse; 65.9% physical abuse; 61.4% neglect;43% had experienced all four maltreatment experiences (including sexual abuse)Hickey et al: 90.9% emotional neglect; 77.3% physical neglectSchwartz et al (2006): 95% neglected;Howley: 71% general neglectBumby & Bumby: 42% emotional or physical neglect.
10 6/9/2018Other ExposureGirls more likely than boys to witness domestic violence and sexual deviance within home(Schwartz et al., 2006).Girls more likely to be exposed to inadequate sexual boundaries in the home (77.3% vs. 41.3%)(Hickey et al., 2008).Schwartz et al., 2006: 659 boys compared with 154 girls in order to understand the precursors tosexual offending among youth. Living instability was also notable with on average 11 changes inliving situations for the girls. This study is consistent with Kubik et al.’s study.Hickey et al: Example of Jade and witnessing mom’s sexual behaviors with men.Weedon (2011): 70.5% exposed to domestic violence56.8% at least one parent with a substance abuse problem31.8% parent with criminal history26% close family member known sex offender47.7% sexualized family environmentsNearly ½ of mothers (47.7%) had at least one mental health issue; 11.4% for fathers40.9% intergenerational sexual abuse within family
11 Conclusions Regarding Victimization Histories 6/9/2018Conclusions Regarding Victimization Histories“[F]emales who committed sexual offenses tended to have more severe histories of maltreatment than their male counterparts”Kubik et al“In comparison to their male counterparts, the developmental histories of the juvenile female perpetrators reflected even more extensive and severe maltreatment”Mathews et al“Biological and socialization factors create a higher threshold for theexternalization of experienced developmental trauma in females than males…[I]t may be that females are generally less likely than males to manifest theeffects of maltreatment in the form of interpersonal aggression or violence andthat females who develop such patterns are generally those who have experiencedremarkably high levels of such developmental trauma in the absence of environmentalsupport for recovery and the presence of healthy female role models” (p.164).
12 Mental Health Issues Among Sexually Abusive Girls 6/9/2018Mental Health Issues Among Sexually Abusive GirlsPTSDRADDepressionPrior Mental Health TreatmentSuicidal IdeationLearning/Academic Difficulties1. PTSD: 59.1% had PTSD vs. 26.4% of boys (Hickey et al.) Incidentally in that study, 45.5%of boys had conduct disorder vs. 9.1% of girls; 50% had PTSD vs. 9.1% of boys (Kubik et al.);Almost ½ of girls met criteria for PTSD (Mathews et al.)2. RAD: 40.9% had dx of RAD vs. 15.4% of boys (Hickey et al.)3. Depression: 83% had histories of depression (Bumby & Bumby); Over ½ had mood disturbance(Mathews et al.); Depression (25%) (Weedon)4. Prior mental health treatment: 83% had received prior mental health (Bumby & Bumby)Weedon, 2011: 72.7% had one or more mental health diagnosis; 52% had at least two mental healthIssues; ADHD (25%); Self-harming behaviors (43.2%)5. Suicide: Miccio-Fonseca: 44% of the females had attempted suicide vs. 15% of the males.50% of the females came from families where someone had attempted suicide vs. 8% of the males.Hunter et al: 60% had histories of suicidal ideation and attempts; Bumby & Bumby: 58% hadhistories of suicide attempts. Weedon: Nearly 30% of girls evidenced suicidal ideation;13.6% attempted suicide6. Academic: Problems range from 40-83% - 40% learning disabilities (Hunter et. al.);Howley: 60% had below average IQs, 50% received special education services.Tardif et al: 80% had a learning disorder. (15 juvenile females compared to 13 Adult females inoutpatient treatment in Montreal.) Bumby & Bumby: 83% academic difficulties. In comparison study,females were retained at least one grade in school at a significantly higher rate than males
13 Behavioral Problems Running away Stealing Truancy Relational deficits 6/9/2018Behavioral ProblemsRunning awayStealingTruancyRelational deficitsHowley’s study: 49% had run away; 39% engaged in truancyBumby & Bumby: 58% had run away; 58% truant (higher truancy rates thanboys); 33% stealingHunter et al: 60% had run away.Ray & English: When compared with boys, higher rates of stealing (74.2%vs. 52.8%) and truancy (43.8% vs. 27.6%)Weedon (2011):Poor peer relationships (68.2%)Social skills problems (63.6%)Social isolation (56.8%)Relational aggression (34.1%)
14 Motivations for Sexual Abuse 6/9/2018Motivations for Sexual AbuseMore about anger (~ 60%), towards main caretakersResistance to cultural scriptsProtection by perpetrationTrauma reenactmentSex offending more about anger (approx. 60%), most often towards main caretakers, rather than sexualcuriosity or stimulation (Howley).A resistance to cultural scripts that teach girls to be passive, inexperienced, naïve, and accommodatingto boys. A rejection of cultural norms that teach girls to be silent and unaware of their sexuality.Navigate their own desires to learn about sex. “To learn about sex in my own terms” & exploretheir sexual orientation (Nancy)They don’t have to worry about pleasing their partner; they just take instead;They don’t have to worry about meeting their needs secondarily; their needs come first instead.They don’t need to worry about being labeled a slut by peers; they’re not engaging sexually with peers.They don’t need to worry about being treated as an object or being used by another; theyobjectify and use someone else instead.Protection by perpetration: They don’t have to worry about being victimized, they are insteadthe victimizers. Margie “I will not be a victim or place myself in a position to bevictimized.” Protecting themselves from peer exploitation.Victim to victimizer cycle: SEXUAL DYSREGULATION (Sigurdsson, 2010)Attachment: Perpetrating is “often motivated by the desire to establish or maintain an emotionalrelationship” (Turner & Turner, p. 41).“Where attachment has proven unsatisfying as a source of nurturance, girls may resort toprecocious sexual involvements in a bid for attachment rather than for actual sexual gratification….[W]here the attachment system falters, the sexual system may come into play in substitute fashion”(Salzman, 1990).
15 Differences Girls less likely to be adjudicated. 6/9/2018DifferencesGirls less likely to be adjudicated.21% had been adjudicated (Howley)2 girls vs. 93 boys charged with a sex offense (Ray & English)27% girls vs. 15% boys cases handled informally and 73% girls vs. 85% boys processed formally (Vandiver).Girls more likely to be viewed as victims.Girls are less likely to be adjudicated and are less likely to be adjudicatedfor assaulting peers.Girls more likely to enter the system as victims; boys more likely to enter thesystem due to concerns about the safety of others (Ray & English).She may perceive herself as “bad” because she has not acted in a mannerconsistent with how girls are taught to behave.The internalization of shame appears higher for girls whosexually offend.Parents may be less likely to understand how their daughter could haveengaged in sexually abusive behavior. They are more likely toblame their daughter’s behavior on known or unknown sexualvictimization.
16 6/9/2018DifferencesBoys more likely to abuse females; females more likely to abuse both genders.Vandiver & TeskeGirls tend to be younger when they sexually abuse others. Kubik et al.; Vandiver & TeskeVictims of females are younger.Vandiver & Teske; Finkelhor et al.Girls more likely to be involved in incidents with multiple victims (23% vs. 12%).Finkelhor et al.1. Girls appear to select victims out of convenience rather than genuine preference for one gender(V & T, 2006)2. Girls tend to be younger when they sexually abuse others: Both comparison and descriptivestudies indicate girls tend to be younger when they sexually abuse others.Vandiver & Teske, 2006: Females began offending earlier than males: 49% of girls in agerange; 50% boys in age range. Study of 61 juvenile females that sexually offendedcompared to 122 juvenile males that sexually offended. Examined registration data. No focus ofvictimization histories, lacks context of offending. Kubik et al: Sexually abusive girls committedtheir first sexual offense at a younger age than the comparison group of adolescent females(M = vs ).Ray & English: 50% of girls were 12 years old or younger vs. 30% of boys.Finkelhor et al. 2009: 31% younger than 12 when compared to 14% of sexuallyabusive boys.Howley: Average age of first offense was 10.65; 30% offended before age 10.Hunter et al.: Median age of first offense was 9.5 years.3. Victims of females are younger: This was, however, contradicted by Vandiver(2010) who found that girls were likely to have victims closer to their own ageWhereas boys were more likely to have victims younger than themselves.4. Girls more likely to be involved in incidents with multiple victims (23% vs. 12%) Finkelhoret al.
17 6/9/2018DifferencesGirls often sexually abuse in caretaking roles. Bumby & BumbySexually abusive girls are less likely to abuse strangers and less predatory. Finkehor et al.More dependency issues and revictimization in their current relationships.Girls often sexually abuse in caretaking roles. This is true for adult females as well.Bumby & Bumby: 11 out of 12 offended while they were babysitting. None abused strangers.Mathews et al: Females appeared more likely to offend while babysitting.Fehrenbach & Monastersky: 67.9% of offenses occurred while babysitting. None abused strangersThe girls exhibit more dependency issues and revictimization in their current relationships.
18 6/9/2018DifferencesGirls reasons for offending may differ from boys – relational aggression.Girls cognitive distortions adopt more altruistic/caretaking justificationsLess use of weaponsDesire to be pregnantFemales do not abuse as much for sexual reasons as boys (Davin, 1999; Dunbar, 1999; Saradjian, 1996;Turner &Turner, 1994). Relational aggression, dependency issues.Altruistic/caretaking reasons/justifications:Mallory: Offending to prepare her sister for abuse by stepfather. Stephanie: sexual contactwith sister was her fulfilling a motherly role. She was helping her sister overcome masturbation.“I thought if she lays on top of me, I can ask her why. I wanted to help the situation and that’swhy I put her on top of me.”Help her sister learn her private parts.
19 Typologies: Predisposed Offending 6/9/2018Typologies: Predisposed OffendingThey sexually offend primarily due to their own sexual abuse histories or individual/family psychopathology.Severe abuse histories and evidence of complex traumaCo-morbid diagnosesAttachment and empathy deficitsCriminal orientation or exclusive sexual offendingThese girls have sexual abuse histories and/or high levels of individual/familypsychopathology and are sexually offending primarily due to those origins.Their offending behavior often mirrors the manner in which they were sexually abused.These girls often experience multiple forms of abuse: neglect, physical violence,sexual abuse, emotional abuse.They may have diagnoses such as PTSD, Depression, Conduct Disorder orAnxiety DisorderThey tend to have attachment/empathy deficits. EXAMPLE: Katie (Casey)Deviant sexual fantasies: trauma bond pairing victimization and arousal. Sarah’s deviant fan.or KandalinCharacteristics: compulsive lying (24-hour polygraph; strong desire to get pregnant to feelwhole inside and they lie about it consistently; preoccupation with relational chaos;they will push you away if you get too close; huge trust issues; promiscuity; highlymanipulative; extreme thinking; substance abuse; cutting behaviors.Kandalin. Talk about Kandalin’s progress: motherless daughter, reflective capacities.
20 Typologies: Experimenting/ Exploiting 6/9/2018Typologies: Experimenting/ ExploitingTheir primary motivation is sexual curiosity.Less likely to have abuse historyCrime of opportunityLow levels of psychopathologyLack social skills and prior sexual experiencesNaïveExperimenting/Exploiting:These girls may have sexual abuse histories but their abuse histories appearsecondary to their primary motivation, sexual curiosity.This is opportunistic offending which often occurs while babysitting or whenaround younger family members.These girls typically have low levels of psychopathology.They lack social skills and fear their own sexuality. They are naïve/lack priorsexual experience.They may be shy and possess low self-esteem, poor bodyimage.Their offense is not about intimacy as much as attaining sexual experience.EXAMPLE: Christina/Klarice
21 Typologies: Peer-Influenced Offending 6/9/2018Typologies: Peer-Influenced OffendingOffending due to pressure from peers or group involvement.Unassertive, dependent, easily influencedLeast likely form of sexual offending for females (or is it?)Recent research shows this is more common than it is with sexually abusiveboys.Female ring leaders: ganging up on an unliked girl; she may exhibit callous,unemotional traits.Queen Bee and Wanabee dynamicEXAMPLE: Sarah (Sabrina) as well as share Maggie’s (Brittany R.) case.
22 6/9/2018Recent StudiesFemales more likely than males to offend with others (36% vs. 23%) as well as with adults (13% vs. 5%)Finkelhor, Omrod, & Chaffin (2009)52% of the girls had at least one co-offender vs. 19% of boys.Vandiver (2010)Social amplification occurs when girls offend with a co-offender. This is not the same for boys.F, O, & C: They were, however, more likely to be considered victims at the same time they wereoffending by investigators. This seems consistent with adult female offenders who are male coerced ormale accompanied offenders (active and passive accomplices).Vandiver (2010): N=177 juvenile boys compared with n=177 juvenile girls.For those who acted alone, she was more likely (than boys or girls acting with aco-offender) to have a male victim. Girls were more likely to be involved in “rings” at least twoand up to nine co-offenders.The girls with co-offenders differ substantially from girls that act alone. Whengirls act with another person, the dynamics of the offending change, and typicallyinclude more serious factors. Co-offenders were significantly more likely to havemultiple victims and more likely to have a female victim and those with a co-offenderwere more likely arrested for rape. Boys were significantly older when arrested than the girls.Many of the girls may be involved in crimes that generate money; the motivation for thesegirls may be economic, rather than emotional or sexual based.Hendriks & Bijleveld (2006): Sample of 20 girls from 11 to 18. Netherlands. Most girlscommitted their offense with one or more co-offenders. In most cases, considerable forcewas used.
23 6/9/2018AssessmentBest practice is based on a thorough understanding of female development and the research on sexually abusive girls.Greater reliance on self-reportHunter & Mathews, 1997Pay close attention to the more subtle and covert behaviors, and internalization responses, in addition to their more overt behavioral problems.Best practice is based on a thorough understanding of female development andthe research conducted thus far on sexually abusive girls.Greater reliance on self-report. Hunter & Mathews, 1997Pay close attention to the more subtle and covert behaviors, andinternalization responses, in addition to their more overt behavioral problems.
24 6/9/2018Assessment ContinuedRelational development, female identity, attachment stylesSexual functioningMental health/internalizationOffending behaviorHistory of maltreatmentHistory of conduct disordered behavior and/or relational aggression?Unhealthy or healthy female role models? Dynamics of mother-daughter relationship?Perceived maternal loss? Is she in abusive relationships? Is her identity inchoate, formulated andstable, or disorganized? Does she easily change her identity based on whom she is with and whatshe perceives others want her to be? (Chameleon identity) Does she voice and assert herself or doesshe possess a more passive orientation? What relational losses has she experienced?Sexual Functioning: Is she sexually passive and an object for others or does shetake ownership of her sexuality? Reproductive health; Sexual knowledge pertaining to self; Desireto get pregnant; Unsafe sexual behavior; Body imageMental Health: Suicidal ideation/behaviors; Depression; Self-mutilation; Eating disordersOffending Bx: Motivation - Sex = love; Trauma re-enactment; Relational aggression: Who wasshe wanting to hurt? Type of cognitive distortions; Typology; Pathway to offendingHistory of Maltreatment: Female perpetrator? Negative outcome to disclosure? PTSD symptoms?In Johnson’s study: not one of the children received a positive response fromtheir disclosure of being victimized.Conduct disordered behavior: manipulative patterns? Pattern of persistent using ofothers and disregarding their feelings (The “Me, me, me syndrome.”)Persistent/compulsive lying?
25 Clinical Needs/Treatment Goals 6/9/2018Clinical Needs/Treatment GoalsProcess and integrate complex trauma history, if applicable.Build an empathy bridge from her victimization to her perpetration.Work on identity formation and self concept.Develop healthy relational patterns.Balance personal needs with the needs of her relationships.Gender-Responsive Treatment:Includes developing gender-responsive management, and understanding the unique risk andprotective factors, distinctive developmental pathways to crime and delinquency, andfundamental differences between genders (CSOM, 2007).Address and process victimization histories; overcome victim identities. Understand therelationship between victimization and perpetration. Trauma experience integration.Develop self-concept/identity formation: Girls who offend tend to have a poor sense ofthemselves. They present like chameleons, changing depending on what environment theyare in and with whom they are associating. Developing an authentic/true self also involvesreducing any chameleon tendencies.Develop healthy relational patterns and healthy boundaries. Build social skills and increasesocial supports. Explore difficulties of trusting others and encourage them to take risks totrust. Reduce preoccupation with relational chaos.
26 Clinical Needs/Treatment Goals 6/9/2018Clinical Needs/Treatment GoalsEstablish a voice of her own.Develop healthy sexual subjectivity.Develop self-esteem and self-care strategies.Address loss and abandonment.Address comorbid diagnoses.Eliminate self-destructive behaviors, e.g., cutting, bingeing.Improve her internal working model.She finds her voice and is able to assert herself. Kristen: Allowing herself to get into a relationshipwith a female when she is strictly heterosexual. Important implications and relates to risk ofrevictimization and offending. Trauma and the brain: Females, more so than males, engage in afreeze/surrender response which is a dissociative adaptation. Self-defense classes.Learn about female sexuality and develop a healthy sexual self. She develops a healthy femalesexual self and learns about arousal and desire, birth control, STDs. Lack of sexual knowledge ispervasive with these and many of the women. Girls: early pregnancy.Develop self-esteem and self-care strategies. Grounding and mindfulness strategies,regulation capacities, distress tolerance skills, setting limits with others. One meta-analysis foundassociation between female offenders’ low self-esteem and antisocial behavior (Larivriere, 1999).Address comorbid diagnoses: Depression, PTSD, Adjustment Disorder,substance abuse, BPD. In one study these diagnoses were nearly 4x the rates of men(Blume, 1997).
27 Clinical Needs/Treatment Goals 6/9/2018Clinical Needs/Treatment GoalsIdentify healthy female role models.Address family dynamics and parenting issues, if applicable.Identify healthy female role models for these girls.Address family dynamics: increase attunement, trust, andcommunication with girl and her caregivers. Emotional emancipation if needed.
28 6/9/2018Therapeutic ProcessTherapeutic alliance built on respect, feeling heard, and supportedWork on a relational levelClear consistent boundariesStrengths-based and holistic approachesCollaboration vs. confrontationRespecting survival strategiesDual specialization: trauma informed and offense specificWeedon, 2011Therapeutic alliance built on respect, feeling heard, and supportedWork on a relational levelProvide clear consistent boundaries instead of loosey-goosey boundaries inthe service of the relationshipStrengths-based and holistic approachesCollaboration vs. confrontationRespecting survival strategies as adaptations to prior traumaDual specialization: trauma-informed and offense-specific (Weedon, 2011)
29 In sum…. Don’t give up on these girls.. 6/9/2018In sum….Don’t give up on these girls..Listen. Don’t assume the dynamics are the same with females.Don’t apply a one size fits all model.Role model respect with every interaction.Respect their need for a relationship.Don’t give up on these girls: Many of them expect this and at times, createcircumstances to push you away.Expect their need for relationship as well as their need to process.