2 We pretty well covered all pronouns in the slide show in the section on parts of speech. The one thing we still need to cover is pronoun CASE. CASE is directly related to NOUN FUNCTION. Personal pronouns are the only pronouns with case, & there are 2 pronoun cases: nominative & objective.
3 These are the NOMINATIVE pronouns: I we you you (all) he, she, it they They are used as subjects and predicate nominatives: I am a teacher. You are a student. We live here. They need a book. In the sentences above, the pronouns are subjects. Using them as predicate nominatives is correct but may sound a little strange to you: It is I. The winner of the prize is he. The people who should study are you & she. Is there anyone who responds to the question, “Who’s there?” with “It is I”? Maybe an English teacher or two. Although you may not choose to TALK that way, you need to know what is technically correct.
4 These are the OBJECTIVE personal pronouns: me us you you (all) him, her, it them These are used as direct objects, indirect objects, & objects of prepositions. Examples: I see him. – direct object I give him food. – indirect obj. I believe in him. –obj. of prep.
5 With appositives, case depends on the case of the noun that the appositive renames: The two daughters, Rita & I, will help with the meal. He saw her two daughters, Rita & me. In the first case, “Rita & I” renames the subject, so you use a nominative pronoun. In the second, “Rita & me” renames the direct object, so you use the objective case.
6 That leaves three functions: objective complement, noun of direct address, and retained object. Using a pronoun in any of these functions is a stretch at best: They were given him. -- Here, “him” would be a retained object. (“They were given him” is rearranged from “Somebody gave him to them,” where “him” is the direct object.) Rather strange. And can you make up even a strange sentence using a pronoun as an objective complement or noun of address? We elected John him????????? Hi, he—how are you doing?????? So really, the only noun functions you need to worry about with pronouns are subject & predicate nominative (nominative case pronouns) and direct object, indirect object, & object of preposition (objective case).
7 A couple of notes: You usually hear about 3 pronoun cases: nominative, objective, & possessive. Possessive are mine ours yours yours his, hers, its theirs But possessive can replace both nominative & objective pronouns: Rita & Maddy, are your sisters coming? Rita: No, mine is sick. – subject Rita & Maddy, where are your sisters? Rita: I haven’t seen mine for a week. – direct object So although there are supposedly 3 cases, there are only 2 uses: nominative & objective. It is perhaps easier to think of personal pronouns as one type of pronoun & possessive pronouns as another, just as demonstrative pronouns are a type, impersonal pronouns are a type, etc.
8 Second, be careful when you combine personal pronouns Second, be careful when you combine personal pronouns. Which of these is correct: Please keep the secret between you & I. Please keep the secret between you & me. The second is correct. “Between” is a preposition, & OBJECTIVE case pronouns follow prepositions: for me, to me, near me. Hypercorrection is the problem here. We know that “you & me are going” is incorrect; it’s supposed to be “you and I.” So when you’re being conscious of your speech, you may go with “you & I” because it sounds more educated. But while “you & I” is correct as a subject, “you & me” is correct as an object of a preposition. Examples of correct sentences: You and I are leaving. They did it for you & me. You and she are leaving. They live near you & her. She & I are leaving. They’re going to help her & me.
9 Third, watch out for pronouns that follow “than” or “as Third, watch out for pronouns that follow “than” or “as.” We say, for example, “He’s older than me,” but that’s not correct. The reason that He is older than I (not me) Is correct is that there’s an understood verb after I. In fact, sometimes we even say that verb: He is older than I am. The same is true with “as”: He is as tall as I (am). It sounds stiff to say, “He is as tall as I,” just like it does when you say, “It is I,” but you can sound OK AND be correct by always including the verb. At any rate, whatever you choose to say, the nominative pronoun is what’s correct. However… There are exceptions, depending on meaning. Consider the following sentences: I can help you more than he. I can help you more than him. BOTH of the above sentences are correct: in the 1st, I can help you more than he can help you. In the 2nd, I can help you more than I can help him.
10 One more note—a tiny one this time One more note—a tiny one this time. Sometimes we say things like We students want to leave now. The way you know it’s “we” students & not “us” students is that you take the noun (students) out & see if what you have needs the nominative or objective case. In the above sentence, you have a subject, so it’s “we.” Don’t do it for us students. In the above sentence, you have an object of a preposition & therefore need the objective case.
11 Exercise pageIgnore #8. Also, watch out for predicate nominatives! No matter how it sounds, give the CORRECT answer. Ignore #5. Ignore 5,10,13,17, Ignore # Ignore #10.