Communication The Key to Resonant Relationships Chapter 4 Communication The Key to Resonant Relationships
Communication and Management The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding. Communication is a human endeavor and involves individuals and groups Communication does not take place unless a common understanding is reached.
1. Why Is Communication Central to Effective Relationships at Work? Introduction Good Leaders and Successful Employees pay a great deal of attention to both: What They Communicate How They Share Information Resonant relationships are vibrant and supportive relationships that foster respect, inclusion, and open and honest dialogue. Good leaders and successful employees pay a great deal of attention to both what they communicate, and how they share information, present themselves, influence people, and build relationships.
How Do Humans Communicate? Verbal Communication The converting of messages into words, either written or spoken Nonverbal The converting of messages by means of facial expressions, body language, and styles of dress. 4
2. How Do Humans Communicate? Communication Defined Very Complex Share everything Use words Communicate nonverbally Language Defined Tied to Our Ability to Think Several Ways of Expression Both Thoughts and Feelings Communication is the act of conveying a message from one person or group to another person or group. Human communication is very complex: We share everything, use words (both spoken and written), and communicate nonverbally through facial expressions, posture, etc. Language is a systematic form of communication that is comprised of a set of sounds and symbols shared by people. Language is tied to our ability to think and can be expressed orally , in written form, or through sign language. Language also expresses both thoughts and feelings. Even the earliest forms of language likely included gestures and sounds associated with both thoughts and feelings.
Read the following statement and put emphasis on the underlined word. I Did Not Say You Were Stupid
4. What Is the Interpersonal Communication Process? Introduction Interpersonal Communication Model Sender Message Receiver Channel Encoding Decoding Feedback receiver indicates to the sender through words or nonverbal signals that a message has been received, or that more communication is desired. Most interpersonal communication models describe communication as following these steps: The sender is the person who encodes and sends a message through a communication channel. The message is information. The receiver is the person who receives and decodes a message. The channel is the medium through which a message is transmitted from a sender to a receiver. Encoding is converting information from one format into another before sending it. Decoding is interpreting what the sender conveyed in their message. If this is successful, a feedback loop can be established, which is the process of sharing information back and forth between sender and receiver until both sender and receiver feel that the message has been fully and accurately conveyed and interpreted.
The Communication Process Sender – person wishing to share information with some other person Message – what information to communicate Encoding – sender translates the message into symbols or language Noise – refers to anything that hampers any stage of the communication process 8
The Communication Process Receiver – person or group for which the message is intended Medium – pathway through which an encoded message is transmitted to a receiver Decoding - critical point where the receiver interprets and tries to make sense of the message Feedback phase is initiated by the receiver Receiver decides what message to send to the original sender Feedback eliminates misunderstandings, ensures that messages are correctly interpreted 9
4. What Is the Interpersonal Communication Process? The Schramm Model of Communication Information Encoded, Transmitted, and Decoded Misinterpreted Due to Noise Information is encoded by a sender, transmitted through a channel, and decoded by a receiver. The messages can be misinterpreted due to noise, i.e., anything that interferes with the transmission or receipt of a message. This model is criticized because it is not representative of the way humans actually communicate, which is not strictly linear and is influenced by many other factors in addition to “noise. Also, this model does not indicate how people distinguish important ideas from those that lack any value, or are even nonsense. A simple model of communication that emphasizes the interactive nature of the communication process. Rather than a simple unidirectional model from sender to receiver, the Schramm model shows communication as a bidirectional process. The Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication Interactive Process Bidirectional Process
4. What Is the Interpersonal Communication Process? Choosing “Rich” or “Lean” Communication Channels Rich Channels (Mediums) Carry More Information Less Ambiguous Message Specific Receiver Opportunities for Feedback Verbal and Nonverbal Signals Lean Channels (Mediums) Less Information Convey Simple Information To Specific Individuals “Rich” channels can carry more information than a lean channel and are less likely to result in vague or ambiguous messages. They are targeted to a specific receiver, offer opportunities for feedback, and incorporate a full range of verbal and nonverbal signals, e.g., face-to-face communication, presentations, videoconferences, teleconferences, etc. “Lean” channels do not have the capacity to carry as much information. They convey simple information to specific individuals, e.g., written personal communication (e-mail, letters, personalized memos, etc.) or impersonal written communication (newsletters, etc.).
Information Richness Information richness The amount of information that a communication medium can carry The extent to which the medium enables the sender and receiver to reach a common understanding
Information Richness and Communication Media Managers and their subordinates can become effective communicators by selecting an appropriate medium for each message—there is no one “best” medium. 13
Face-to-Face Communication Management by wandering around face-to-face communication technique in which a manager walks around a work area and talks informally with employees about issues and concerns.
Spoken Communication Electronically Transmitted Spoken Communication Electronically Transmitted Has the second highest information richness. Telephone conversations are information rich with tone of voice, sender’s emphasis, and quick feedback, but provide no visual nonverbal cues. 15
Personally Addressed Written Communication Personally Addressed Written Communication Has a lower richness than the verbal forms of communication, but still is directed at a given person. Personal addressing helps ensure receiver actually reads the message—personal letters and e-mail are common forms. Personally Addressed Written Communication Does not provide instant feedback to the sender although sender may get feedback later. Excellent media for complex messages requesting follow-up actions by receiver. Email do’s and don’ts E-mail allows telecommuting employees to work from home and keep in contact. The use of e-mail is growing rapidly and e-mail etiquette is expected: Typing messages in all CAPITALS is seen as “screaming” at the receiver. Punctuate your messages for easy reading and don’t ramble on. Pay attention to spelling and treat the message like a written letter. 16
Impersonal Written Communication Has the lowest information richness. Good for messages to many receivers where little or no feedback is expected (e.g., newsletters, blogs, reports) Many managers do not have time to read all the electronic work-related information available to them Problem with information overload is the potential for important information to be ignored or overlooked Can result in lost productivity 17
5. How Do We Use Information Technology to Communicate at Work? Introduction Technology Has Changed Communication Elimination of language barriers (translation dictionaries) New Rules for proper communication behavior E-mail and Text Messaging Web Conferencing and Videoconferencing Social Media Technology has fundamentally changed the way we view communication in our lives and at work. Even language barriers are breaking down with the advent of portable, handheld electronic translation dictionaries and Internet translation services. Technology has also placed pressure on us to develop new rules and conventions for proper communication behavior. For instance, many companies have guidelines for how to use e-mail and social networking, while text messaging has developed its own language system. There are also challenges presented by e-mail and text messages: Emotions behind the e-mail message often fall short of reaching the receiver—or are inaccurately interpreted. The interpretation of silence or nonresponse is difficult, given the possibility of instantaneous reply. Without a response, a sender may jump to conclusions that are inaccurate. Web conferencing and the technology it represents is creating new way of collaborating. Social media, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter, allow us to stay connected and receive real-time updates on a continuous basis. But in spite of the overwhelming popularity and convenience of these outlets, some experts fear that they do not encourage us to develop deep bonds with others or allow us to show our authentic selves.
5. How Do We Use Information Technology to Communicate at Work? Discussion Questions Consider two situations: one in which information technology helped you build a relationship, and one in which it inhibited the development of a relationship. How did technology help in the first instance and get in the way in the second? Many argue that new communication technologies have made social interactions impersonal and that people are not developing enough face-to-face communication skills. What is your opinion on this topic?
Barriers to Effective Communication Messages that are unclear, incomplete, difficult to understand Messages that are sent over an inappropriate medium Messages with no provision for feedback Messages that are received but ignored Messages that are unclear, incomplete, difficult to understand Messages sent over the an inappropriate medium Messages with no provision for feedback Messages that are received but ignored Messages that are misunderstood Messages delivered through automated systems that lack the human element 20
10. What Can We All Do to Improve Communication and Build Resonant Relationships at Work? Basic Rules for Sending Clear and Powerful Messages Be sure you know what message you want to send. Determine the most appropriate channel for your message. Simplify your language to match your audience. Remember that jargon can hurt communication when it is unfamiliar to the receiver, but it may improve communication when it is familiar. Create a level of trust that makes people feel comfortable passing bad news up and down the hierarchy. Be careful about poor or inadvertent use of inappropriate nonverbal signals. Practice empathy when communicating.
Communication Skills for Managers as Senders Jargon-specialized language that members of an occupation, group, or organization develop to facilitate communication among themselves --should never be used when communicating with people outside the occupation, group, or organization
Example – NASCAR Jargon Unless you follow NASCAR, you may not be familiar with words like loose-in, tight-off, wedge adjustment, spring rubber, track-bar, catch can and tunnel turn. http://www.nascar.com/news/features/track.jargon/index.html 23
Communication Skills For Managers as Receivers Pay attention Be a good listener Be empathetic
8. What Is Organizational Communication? Crisis Communication Remain Calm Gather Information Communicate Openly Responds Swiftly In times of crisis, communication can be the first casualty in organizations. Managers need to remain calm and gather as much information as possible, communicate information as openly as possible, and respond swiftly to the crisis. An organization can use spokespersons to manage the accuracy and the consistency of the organization’s message.
9. What Can HR Do to Ensure Effective Communication and Resonant Relationships in Organizations? Introduction HR Communicates About Labor Laws Workforce Data HR is often responsible for ensuring that everyone in an organization is fully informed about two key topics: labor laws and workforce data. Labor laws are local, state, and federal laws that guide processes such as hiring and firing employees, as well as how workers are to be treated on the job. Workforce data is information that can impact the company’s ability to succeed, such as information about the labor pool, morale, and organizational culture.
HR’s Responsibilities 9. What Can HR Do to Ensure Effective Communication and Resonant Relationships in Organizations? Communicating Labor Laws HR’s Responsibilities Current on Labor Relations Employees and Management Understand the Law HR’s responsibilities include being current on all relevant labor relations regulations. HR must also be sure that all levels of employees and management are trained and understand the laws that impact how they do their jobs.
9. What Can HR Do to Ensure Effective Communication and Resonant Relationships in Organizations? Gathering and Communicating Employee Engagement Information Employee Morale High Morale: Enthusiasm, Commitment, Trust… Low Morale: High Employee Turnover, Absenteeism… HR is often responsible for gathering, organizing, and disseminating information about things like the talent pool, compensation, and employees’ skills. HR professionals must be able to advise managers and leaders by relying on factual information, not just opinions about what is going on in the workforce. Employee morale is the collective mood or spirit in an organization. Employee morale affects people’s ability to do their jobs well and the organization’s ability to achieve its goals. High morale results in enthusiasm, commitment, trust, belief in the organization’s mission and vision, esprit de corps, and faith in leadership. Low morale results in high employee turnover, absenteeism and illness, as well as a dissonant climate and lower productivity.