4 Objectives After completing this section, you will be able to describe the six elements of the communication process.explain barriers to effective communication.
5 Key Termscommunication process sender encoding transmission channel receiver decodingfeedback barrier diversity multicultural society multigenerational sending barrier receiving barrier
6 What Is Communication?Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages that convey information, ideas, feelings, and beliefsThe communication process is a series of actions on the part of the sender and the receiver of the message on the path a message followsThe communication process has six elements: sender, message, channel, receiver, translation, and feedback
7 What Is Communication? (Continued) The sender is the person who has a message to communicateThe message is what is being sent by the senderWhat do you want to communicate?How do you want to communicate?Encoding is the process of turning the idea for a message into symbols that are communicated to othersThe act of sending of a message is called transmission, and the channel is how the message is transmitted, such as face-to-face conversation, telephone, , text, or any other vehicle
8 What Is Communication? (Continued) The receiver is the person who gets a messageDecoding is translating the message into terms that the receiver can understandThe process of understanding a messageOnly received when receiver understands itFeedback is the response of the receiver to a message, and it concludes the communication cycle
9 Barriers to Effective Communication Barriers are anything that prevents clear, effective communicationMay occur in written, verbal, and nonverbal communicationsDiversity means having people in a group or organization who are of different races or who have different cultures; markets are diverseWhen people come together in the workplace, a variety of communication barriers may ariseMulticultural society is a society consisting of people from many cultures with many different wants and needs
10 Barriers to Effective Communication (Continued) Communicating in different languages can present a language barrier, especially when doing business internationallyMultigenerational describes people of different generations in the same place, such as living or working together in the same home or officeThe six steps in the communication process can create potential barriers for a sender, receiver, or both
11 Barriers to Effective Communication (Continued) Sending barriers: the sender says or does things that cause the receiver to tune out the messageUnfamiliar words, poor grammar, or assumptions of certain knowledge may be wrongSender must make sure the message is clear to the receiver and is understoodReceiving barriers: the receiver says or does things that cause a message to not be received as intended
12 Effective Communication Goodheart-Willcox Publisher
13 Types of Communication Section 22.2Types of Communication
14 Objectives After completing this section, you will be able to explain the importance of written communication skills.describe verbal communication skills that are important in the workplace.identify the role nonverbal communication plays in marketing.
15 Key Termswritten communication writing process four Cs of writing memo reportverbal communication telephone etiquette nonverbal communication body language
16 Written Communication Written communication is recording words through writing or keying to communicateMany decisions must be made when developing a written marketing messageWords chosen depend on the target market, the purpose of the message, and the desired response from the receiversVery few images are strong enough to carry a marketing message without any words
17 Written Communication (Continued) Writing process is a set of sequential stages for each writing task; in marketing, it isPrewriting: define customer profile and message intentWriting: create message draft; revise as neededPost writing: get feedback and proofread finalPublishing: print or send document electronicallyUse the four Cs of writing: clear, concise, courteous, and correct communication
18 Written Communication (Continued) Marketing promotions include print advertising pieces, items for sales promotion, press releases, media kits, sales brochures, faxes, and scripts for personal sellingBusiness correspondence includes letters on company letterhead, internal memos, and formal or informal reports
19 Written Communication (Continued) Goodheart-Willcox Publisher
20 Verbal Communication Verbal communication is speaking Marketers are expected to have both good written and verbal communicating skillsTone of speech refers to the feeling conveyed to the receiver from the way words are spokenVerbal communication tipsUse Standard English, speak clearly, make eye contact, ask relevant questions, use friendly toneEliminate distracting physical habits
21 Verbal Communication (Continued) Good telephone etiquette, or using good manners on the telephone, is importantTelephone skill tipsSmile when answering phone, speak clearly and in a normal tone, and use the company greetingWhen making calls, plan messages in advance; have paper and pen for taking messages or notesA presentation is a formal speech that presents information to the receivers; goal is often to persuade the audience
22 Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication refers to actions, as opposed to words, that send messagesBody language is nonverbal communication through facial expressions, gestures, body movements, and body positionNonverbal communication barriers can includeDistracting mannerismsFacial expressions that conflict with the words spokenInappropriate dress or conductSarcastic or angry tone of voiceSpeaking too softly or too loudly
23 Listening and Reading with a Purpose Section 22.3Listening and Reading with a Purpose
24 Objectives After completing this section, you will be able to discuss listening skills and why they are important to marketers.explain what it means to read with a purpose.
25 Key Termsactive listening passive listening empathy prejudice active reading skimming scanning reading for detail
26 Listening SkillsHearing is a physical process; listening is an intellectual process that combines hearing with evaluationActive listening takes place when the listener is focused on what is being saidPassive listening takes place when the listener hears the message but does not pay attention to what is being said; types include careless, distracted, narrow, and defensive listeners
27 Listening Skills (Continued) Successful marketers know how to listen to customers and vendors and interpret the communicationTwo important listening skills to learn areShowing empathy, the process of seeing things from the point of view of another personOvercoming barriers to listening
28 Listening Skills (Continued) Barriers to listeningInterruptions can come from anyone during a conversationAssumptions that people know what a speaker will sayPrejudice is a feeling of like or dislike for someone, especially when it is not reasonable or logicalPlanning a response while the speaker is still speaking
29 Reading with PurposeReading is one of the main ways to learn new informationMarketers read research documents, business e mails, various reports, and many promotional piecesActive reading takes place when the reader is thinking about what he or she is reading
30 Reading with Purpose (Continued) Have a clear purpose for what is being readSkimming is quickly glancing over the entire document to identify the main ideasScanning is moving the eyes quickly down the page to find specific words and phrasesReading for detail involves reading all of the words and phrases and considering the meanings
31 Review Where does decoding occur? Answer: Decoding occurs in the mind of the receiver.What are the four common types of interference that can occur at work?Answer: These include interruptions, assumptions, prejudice, and planning a response.