CATEGORIES OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Week 8 CATEGORIES OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Five Primary Categories of Human Rights
Civil Rights Political Rights Economic Rights Social Rights Cultural Rights These five categories are classified in two groups of rights which can be found in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted in 1948) and were laid down in two legally binding international instruments, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, adopted in 1966) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR, adopted in 1966)
Practice shows that the different categories
of human rights have not developed at an equal level. Compared to civil and political rights, the categories of economic, social and cultural rights are less developed. This is partly due to the fact that economic, social and cultural rights have been seen for a long time as ‘secondary rights’ compared to civil and political rights
First Group: Civil and political rights (CPR)
Civil and political rights comprise the first portion of the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights almost more than half of the articles address civil and political rights. Civil and political rights (classic freedom rights) is a group of rights which are supposed to be immediately guaranteed by governments, protects the individual from the misuse of political power and recognize every individual’s right to participate in their country’s civil and political process without discrimination.
Is a personal liberties that belong to an individual, owing
Civil rights Is a personal liberties that belong to an individual, owing to his or her status as a citizen or resident of a particular country or community. Civil rights and civil liberties often mean the same thing. The words are frequently used to signify the protection of rights to liberty and equality under the constitution, such as freedom of speech, protection against unreasonable searches. The term civil rights is also used to refer to positive actions by the government to protect or extend the rights of people—to provide for individuals or groups opportunities that were previously denied to them.
Civil rights may include:
Ensuring peoples‘ integrity and safety Protection from private (non-government) discrimination (based on gender, religion, race, etc.) The right to equality in public places. Equal access to health care, education, culture, etc.
POLITICAL RIGHTS The second group in particular the right to freedom of opinion and expression; the right to peaceful assembly and to freedom of association; the right to take part in the conduct of public affairs; and the right to vote and to be elected.
Political rights include:
Natural justice (procedural fairness) in law (such as the rights of the accused, including the right of fair trial; due Process) Individual political freedom, including rights of the Individuals (freedom of thought and conscience, freedom of speech and expression, freedom of religion, freedom of the press, freedom of movement) The right to participate in civil society and politics (freedom of association, right to assemble, and right to vote)
Second Group: Economic, Social and cultural rights (ESCR)
Economic, Social and cultural rights comprise the second portion of the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights. Billions of women, men and children face deprivation levels of right to live with dignity. Hunger, homelessness and diseases are not only because of social problems or simply the result of natural disasters – they are a violation of people’s economic, social and cultural rights.
Access to justice is an essential right of victims of all
human rights violations, but many people around the world, particularly those living in poverty, have their rights violated on a daily basis and too often are denied justice when they try to challenge these violations. In many countries, economic, social and cultural rights are not recognized or enforceable by law. Existing remedies may also be ineffective in providing the maintenance of those rights, including compensation to the victims.
Economic, social and cultural rights protect an individual’s right to access economic, social and cultural aspects of their country; they now occupy an increasingly important place in the legal and political systems of different countries of the world. They are given much attention in the activities of the United Nations and other international organizations.
Economic, Social and cultural right includes:
The right to education, adequate housing, food, water, the highest standard of health, the right to work and rights at work, the cultural rights of minorities, right to social security, the right to protection of – and assistance to the family, mothers and children.