11 What is the relationship between GENES and DNA?
12 How the Code WorksThe combination of A,T,G,C determines what traits you might have.....C A T C A T = purple hairT A C T A C = yellow hair
13 Think of the bases of DNA like letters. Letters form words....Words form sentences.... *endless combinations
14 DNA REPLICATIONthe process by which DNA makes a copy of itself Where: nucleus When: cell divisionSEMI-CONSERVATIVE half of the old (parent) strand is savedDNA Helicase: unwinds and unzips the DNADNA Polymerase: adds new complimentary bases to the old (parent) stands
16 Let's Review What We Know About DNA 1. DNA stands for: De _____ ribo ______ acid2. What is the shape of DNA? ______________3. Who established the structure of DNA? ____________ and ______________4. Adenine always pairs with _______________5. The sides of the DNA ladder are deoxyribose and _______________
17 6. Guanine always pairs with _____________ 7. What is the complementary sequence: C A T T A G8. The two sides of DNA are held together by _______ bonds.9. DNA is composed of repeating subunits called ______________________10. What are the 4 bases that make up the rungs of the DNA ladder? ____________________
18 Draw Replication… Use this picture to help you start: I have unzipped the first 15 bases on each strandfor you. Continue to unzip the DNA andcreate the new complimentary strands.G C A T G C A G G A T C T G AA T G G C G C C C T T G A G THelicaseT A C C G C G G G A A C T C AC G T A C G T C C T A G A C T
19 RNA - the messenger*single stranded*ribose sugar*contains no thymine, uracil instead*follows base pair rule, but A ⇒ UDNA: A T A G A GRNA: U A U C U C
28 Transcription - process where RNA is made from DNA Occurs in the nucleus (only reads one strand of the DNA) The messenger RNA (mRNA) is able to leave the nucleus through the semi-permeable nuclear membrane.
30 Let’s Practice Transcription… If this is your DNA, what would the complementary RNA strand look like:DNA: T A C G C T A A A G T GRNA:DNA: T A C A G C T A T A C AA U G C G A U U U C A CA U G U C G A U A U G U
31 Translation - process where proteins are made from RNA
32 TranslationThe mRNA attaches to a ribosome that “reads” the code from the DNA.The code occurs in the three letter sections called Codons.
33 The ribosome “calls” the complimentary tRNA anticodon to match up with the mRNA codon.
34 TranslationEvery protein created begins with the START codon AUG.AUG codes for the amino acid methionine.Every protein ends with the STOP codon, UGA, UAA, or UAG.