Presentation on theme: "Hydrosphere. The hydrosphere contains all the water found on our planet. Water found on the surface of our planet includes the ocean as well as water."— Presentation transcript:
The hydrosphere contains all the water found on our planet. Water found on the surface of our planet includes the ocean as well as water from lakes and rivers, streams, and creeks. Water found under the surface of our planet includes water trapped in the soil and groundwater. Water found in our atmosphere includes water vapor. Frozen water on our planet includes ice caps and glaciers. Only about 3% of the water on Earth is “fresh” water, and about 70% of the fresh water is frozen in the form of glacial ice.
World Ocean Covers 70% of the planet Helps regulate our environment Made up of Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic, Indian Ocean
Ocean vs fresh water Ocean water contains more salts. Salts have dissolved out of rocks on land and been carried to the ocean or have come from undersea volcanic eruptions Salinity is the concentration of sodium chloride (salt) Salinity varies
Global Temperature Regulator Function of ocean: absorb & store energy from sun. This regulates temperatures in earth’s atmosphere – Ocean absorbs half the solar radiation – Ocean absorbs & releases heat more slowly than land. Temperature in atmosphere changes more slowly than it would if there were no ocean. – Local temperatures affected by currents that carry warm water by land areas
Deep Currents Streamlike movements of water flowing slowly along ocean floor. Form when cold, dense water from poles sink below warmer, less dense water Flows toward equator Most dense & coldest water off coast of Antarctica. This sinks to bottom & flow north to 40 degrees N (several hundred years)
Global Temperature Regulator A global "conveyor belt“: – set in motion when deep water forms in the North Atlantic, – sinks, moves south, – and circulates around Antarctica, – then moves northward to the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic basins.
Upwelling brings cold, nutrient-rich water from the depths up to the surface. Earth's rotation and strong seasonal winds push surface water away from some western coasts, so water rises on the western edges of continents to replace it. Marine life thrives in these nutrient-rich waters Upwelling along the coast (waters move to the right of the wind). The waters moved offshore are replaced by waters from below. This brings cold, nutrient rich waters to the surface.
Surface Currents Wind driven currents Flow from tropics to higher latitudes Two kinds: warm water (Gulf Stream) & cold water. They do not mix. Influence climate of land areas they flow past – Gulf Stream flows by British Isles (palm trees) /same lattitude as Newfoundland (snow & ice)
Winds drive ocean currents, which redistribute heat and moisture.
Cold surface currents come from polar and temperate latitudes, and tend to flow towards the equator. Like the warm surface currents, they are driven mainly by wind. Gyres form when the major ocean currents connect. Water flows in a circular pattern--clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere §.§
Biosphere Thin band around earth that supports life – Upper geosphere – Most of hydrosphere (12 km) – Lower atmosphere (9 km)
Why life exists on earth. Requires water Moderate temperature Source of energy – Biosphere located near surface because the sunlight is available Materials needed must be cycled – Gravity enables cycling of materials (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen)
Plants on land & algae in water use energy from sun to make their own food. Almost every other organism gets its energy from eating plants or algae. When an animal eats a plant, the energy stored in the plant is transferred to the animal. The animal may be eaten by another animal in the food chain. Some of the energy is lost to the environment as heat
The exception is archaebacteria that live in hydrothermal vents in the ocean and organisms that live deep in the ocean that feed on dead plants and animals that drift down from the surface.
Eden Project http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/vide o/2011/sep/11/architecture-cornwall http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/vide o/2011/sep/11/architecture-cornwall