5 Trichinosis Pathology: Adults cause mild gastroenteritis. Larvae cause fever, myositis and multi-system involvement which may lead to death.Diagnosis: serology, muscle biopsy.Treatment: Albendazole or Mebendazole + corticosteroids
7 Most prevalent in areas where domestic pigs are allowed to roam freely.
8 Visceral larva migrans: Mainly affects children who eat soil contaminated with emberyonated (infective) eggs of Toxocara canis.Larvae do not develop in humans but migrate continuously in viscera and encapsulate, causing tissue damage.
12 Caused by Dracunculus medinensis DraunculiasisCaused by Dracunculus medinensisAdult female lives in subcutaneous tissues, causing a skin ulcer through which it protrudes its anterior end.Main pathology due to secondary bacterial infection and allergic reactions.Diagnosis: clinical picture.Treatment: surgical removal.
13 FILARIAL WORMS: (Adult worms + microfilariae) Onchocerca volvulus:Adults in subcutaneous swellings Microfilariae : mainly in skin, eyes causing River blindness2. Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi & B. timori:Lymphatic filariasis (adults in lymphatics,microfilariae in blood)3. Loa loa:Adults in subcutaneous and subconjunctival tissues, causing Calabar swellings.Microfilariae in blood
23 LYMPHATIC FILARIASISDiagnosis: detection of microfilariae in blood in early stages of the disease:Blood film, Knott’s method( concentration of 1 ml of blood), best 10 pm to 2 am (nocturnal periodicity).Immunological tests:Treatment: diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin
26 LoiasisPathology: Adult worm continously migration in subcutaneous and subconjuntival tissues, causing Calabar swellings (allergic reactions) and conjunctivitis.
27 Loiasis Diagnosis: detection of microfilariae in blood film. Treatment: diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin, surgical remonval.
28 NON-FILARIAL TISSUE NEMATODE INFECTIONS treatmentDiagnosisLocation in humanMode of transmissionDiseaseNematode speciesSurgical extractionclinicalSubcutaneous, mainly in lower limbsIngestion of infected cyclops in waterDracunculiasis, Guinea worm diseaseDracunculus medinensisalbendazoleSerology, muscle biopsyMuscles, lungs brainingestion larvae in under-cooked porkTrichinellosis (trichinosis)Trichinella spiralisSerology, ELISAAbdominal organs and brainIngestion of infective eggs in soilVisceral larva migransToxocara canis
29 MAJOR FILARIAL INFECTIONS OF HUMANS Lab. diagnosisvectorLocation of microfilariaLocation of adult in humansGeographic distributionDiseasespeciesBlood filmmosquitoesBlood (nocturnal periodicity)Lymphatic vesselsTropical and subtropical areaselephantiasisWuchereria bancroftiAsiaBrugia malayiSkin snipSimulium spp. (black fly)Skin, eyes, no periodicitySubcutaneous nodulesAfrica, Central and South America, YemenOnchocerciasis (river blindness)Onchocerca volvulusChrysops spp. (deer fly)Blood (diurnal periodicity)Moving in subcutaneous tissuesCentral AfricaloiasisLoa loa