2 TOXOPLASMOSIS HOW MAN BECOME INFECTED ? Toxoplasmosis is a very common parasite for man and animals, it is estimated that one third of the world’s adult population contract toxoplasmosis.The definitive host is the CAT.HOW MAN BECOME INFECTED ?1- Acquired Toxoplasmosis : either by eating food contaminated with cat fecal matter, so man will ingest OOCYSTS , OR by ingestion of under cooked meat (pork, sheep, beef or politary).2-Conginital Toxoplasmosis: The earlier in pregnancy the mother is infected, the lower is the risk of an infection of the fetus, but the severer is the disease. The later in pregnancy the mother is infected, the higher is the possibility of fetal infection, and the disease is less severe (often subclinical infection)
7 TOXOPLASMOSIS Transmission of infection: 1: Congenital ( /1000 pregnancies)2: Acquired :Ingestion of oocyst:contaminated fingers,soil,waterIngestion of cyst in undercooked meat.Blood transfusion ( including WBC platelets) and organ transplant3: Reactivation of infectionImmunocompromised e.g. AIDSImmunosuppression e.g. drugs
9 Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy AbortionOvert disease. The symptoms vary widely, the classical triad of Congenital Toxoplasmosis isHydrocephalusIntracranial calcificationChorioretinitisSubclinical infection: no symptoms at birthLate onset symptoms (most common in the eyes: Chorioretinitis)No symptoms at all
10 Toxoplasmosis Risk Factors: Control: Presence of cats Poor sanitation , mild humid climateFood habitsPregnancyControl:Proper handling of pet catsAvoid raw or undercooked meat.Prevent exposure of pregnant women to infection.Screening of pregnant women for Toxoplasma antibodies.
13 Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy In general : The earlier in pregnancy the mother is infected, the lower is the risk of an infection of the fetus, but the severer is the disease. The later in pregnancy the mother is infected, the higher is the possibility of fetal infection, and the disease is less severe (often subclinical infection)
20 Treatment of Toxoplasmosis Sulfonamides and pyrimethamine (Daraprim) are two drugs widely used to treat toxoplasmosis in humans.Spiramycin: a drug used in France to treat pregnant women to minimize the effects of congenital toxoplasmosis
22 FILARIAL WORMS: (Adult worms + microfilariae) 1 Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi & B. timori:Lymphatic filariasis (adults in lymphatics,microfilariae in blood)2 Loa loa:Adults in subcutaneous and subconjunctival tissues, causing Calabar swellings. Microfilariae in blood3 Onchocerca volvulus:Adults in subcutaneous swellings Microfilariae : mainly in skin, eyes causing River blindness
25 LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS Mainly caused by Wuchereria bancrofti Pathology: and Brugia malayiPathology:Due to adult worm obstructing lymphatics.Acute: lymphadenitis lymphatic varicesChronic: lymphedema, hydrocele, chyluria.
26 LYMPHATIC FILARIASISDiagnosis: detection of microfilariae in blood in early stages of the disease:Blood film, Knott’s method( concentration of 1 ml of blood), best 10 PM to 2 AM (nocturnal periodicity).Immunological testsTreatment: diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin