2 ADH Antidiuretic hormone Regulate reabsorption by kidneys Diuretic: promotes production of urineRegulate reabsorption by kidneysOsmoreceptors in hypothalamusStored in pituitary glandThirstyEthanolOsmoreceptor nerve cells in hypothalamus shrink when low water concentration and high solute concentration in bloodstreamShrinking of osmoreceptors cause sensation of thirstSends signal to pituitary to release ADHADH causes kidneys to reabsorb more waterDistal convoluted tubule and collecting duct permeable to waterWater drawn from nephron via osmosisEthanol is a diureticCauses more formation of urineLess reabsorption of solutesCan cause dehydration
3 Blood PressureDecrease in blood pressure detected by juxtaglomerular apparatusLow blood pressure = reduced O2Renin released by JGAConverts angiotensinogen to angiotensinAngiotensinConstriction of blood vesselsStimulates release of aldosterone to increase Na+ transport
5 pH Balance Normal blood pH: 7.35 – 7.45 H+ and HCO3+ Regulate blood pH by the active transport of H+ ions into the filtrateBuffer systemCO2 actively transported out of peritubular capillariesCO2 combines with water to form HCO3- or H+Secretion of H+ ions either slows or increases until the pH returns to normalExcess H+ buffered by bicarbonate ionsUrine pH is between 4.5 and 8.0
6 Kidney Disease Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Insipidus Type 1 or type 2Inadequate secretion of insulin from the pancreas results in excess sugar being excreted in the urineCauses excess water loss; constant thirstDiabetes InsipidusDestruction of ADH producing cells in the hypothalamus or the nerve tract to the pituitary glandLarge urine outputBright’s Disease (Nephritis)Inflammation of the nephronsToxins alter the permeability of the nephronsKidney StonesPrecipitation of mineral solutes from the bloodLodge in the renal pelvis and cause pain as they move to the urethra
7 HomeworkHave a safe and relaxing Christmas Break!