Motivation As students of Karl-Franzens University our motivation to approach this theme was since the beginning that as a main Austrian University we should be a model of sustainability practices. By finding out some way to contribute with this, we expect it to have an impact on the way people think and therefore act in other areas of the day by day life in the surrounding context of the academy.
How this project was born The trigger point: – the complaints of some users of the classrooms at the RESOWI building because of the temperature being so high – while other users refer the contrary, like for instance at the cellar where it can become too cold in some periods of the year...These complaints come along with the impression that the University is wasting energy
The main questions (1) The first question that raised was if the University is actually wasting energy or not This was mainly a impression that people have, so for that reason: –some indicators where needed –and also a reference to compare them, in order to find out if the University is actually doing well or not in terms of energy consumption
The main questions (2) Then the second question was if the present situation (whether good or bad) can still be improved and how The two focuses that we chose were: 1.The practices of the final users (in this case all the people that are part of the universitys community somehow) 2.The structural characteristics of the buildings;
How it was made (1) As primary references: several interviews –Professor Stefan P. Schleicher who offers the lecture of Energy and Sustainable Development at Graz University, where this project was developed –Representatives of several organizations related to sustainability and ecology –The Abteilung für Wirtschaft, Gebäude und Technik (Unit for Economy, Buildings and Techniques) at Graz University
How it was made (2) Secondary references: –The Diplom Thesis that was written by Dunkel, Gerald H. in 2002 –Several internet sources to support the concepts and the general ideas
WHAT HAPPENED IN THE LAST PERIOD The data obtained is for the Karl Franzens Universität Graz, and was taken from Dunkel, Gerald´s Diplom Thesis
Former Changes The Magna Charta of European Universities, Bologna, September 1988 University Presidents for a Sustainable Future, the Talloires Declaration, October 1990 Urgent Appeal from the CRE, the association of European universities, presented to the Preparatory Committee for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Geneva, August 1991 Creating a Common Future: An Action Plan for Universities, Halifax, December 1991 COPERNICUS- The University Charta for sustainable developement
Institutional commitment Environmental ethics Education of university employees Programmes in environmental education Interdisciplinarity Dissemination of knowledge Networking Partnerships Continuing education programmes Technology transfer
The project Energieeffiziente Universitäten Started in 1996 The aim was to reduce the energy waste by efficient use 18 Austrian Universities spent in 1997 0,42 Mio. MWh Energie 1 Possible savings: 5,8 to 7,3. millions Euro 2 http://clear.eawag.ch/optionen/co2reduktion/subfolder/energieeffizienz/Oekomanagement.pdf Dunkel, Gerald H. Energiedienstleistungen für die Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Graz (2002).
Financial budget in 2000: 146,8Mio, divided as follows: 122Mio for personnel cost; 21,5Mio costs of materials; 3,3Mio for investments and infrastructure That shows us a relation of 83% personal costs, 15% materials and 2% investments 3 Dunkel, Gerald H. Energiedienstleistungen für die Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Graz (2002
Cleaning (Reimaging)1.781.508,83 Electricity and Gas (Strom&Gas) 1.466.359,57 District heating (Fernwärme) 1.085.003,87 Rent (Miet-Pachtzins)900.481,18 Mantainance (Instandhaltung von Gebäudenn) 607.224,17 Water (Wasser)159.449,68 In Euro
Regarding the Energy report of 2000 the possible saving of energy costs are: 10 % with a better knowledge about the energy need 10 % by an effiecient use of the district heating 35 % by using modern equipment. (Dunkel p.120)
Duties and responsibilities A really big problem is the splintering of duties and responsibilities since 2001 all the university buildings are owned by the Bundesimmobiliengesellschaft GmbH
Nachhaltigkeitsbeauftragter (responsible of the sustainability) – sustainability report The four vice rectors – administration Abteilung für Wirtschaft, Gebäude und Technik (Unit for Economy, Buildings ant Techniques) - Climate Techniques
THE PRESENT SITUATION The data obtained is for the Karl Franzens Universität Graz, and was facilitated by the Abteilung für Wirtschaft, Gebäude und Technik (the Unit for Economy, Buildings and Techniques at the same university)
Price for electricity and heating Electricity (in red): encreasing every 3 years Long distance heating (in green): price increase
Increase of the built spaces 100% 112% 118% 122% lt. BIDOK bzw. Wissensbilanz(knowledge balance sheet )
Electricity Costs 157% 137% 109% 100% Since 2008 the ZMB Buildings are included, for that reason the increase is high
Heating costs 111% 110% 104% 100% Since 2008 the ZMB Buildings are included, for that reason the increase is high
Comparison of heating costs: projected increase versus real
Energy consumption / year The following table represents the Universitys energy consumption per year, in terms of kWh and m³ respectively: Data provided by: Abteilung für Wirtschaft, Gebäude und Technik (Unit for Economy, Buildings and Techniques at Graz University) 2006200720082009 Electricity[kWh]14.586.76013.454.06317.639.85719.060.187 Gas [m³]15.23818.48418.04315.054 District heating [kWh] 21.007.07918.287.74418.654.11517.175.961 Water [m³]101.99197.16390.74089.913
The users can contribute (1)... Nowadays it could be possible a decrease from 5% to 10%, if the users contribute.
The users can contribute (2) The University is growing in space used and the time of use has also increased…
One example of the daily practices that can be changed According to the Diplom thesis it was decreased 20% of the energy consumption with daily practices...
The unit of buildings and techniques and the heating Everyday this office deals with organizing and controlling the heating and electricity for all buildings at the University, and all the decisions are made from their central office. In consequence the users can not change the heat in the university classrooms, nor offices, because it is fixed. A way to contribute is if the people, and specially the students could all to the office to inform when its too warm or too cold. That way not just the energy used can be decreased, but also the users in conditions can be improved.
Contact details Person in charge: DI (FH) Nicole Strini Assistentin der Abteilungsleitung Gebäude und Technik E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephones: +43 (0)316/380 2149 and +43 (0)316/380 1181 Address: Karl Franzens Universität Graz Attemsgasse 8 8010 Graz
Buildings Structural characteristics for passive houses (the first reference to compare) In general for University
A good example of a passive house http://planetgreen.discovery.com/videos/worl ds-greenest-homes-the-new-zealand- passive-solar-home.html
Passive house A dwelling which achieves the Passive Houses standard typically includes: very good levels of insulation with minimal thermal bridges; well thought out utilisation of solar and internal gains; excellent level of air tightness; good indoor air quality, provided by a whole house mechanical ventilation system with highly efficient heat recovery.
Passive House Darmstadt Kranichstein the first Passive House, built in 1990. Architects: Prof. Bott /Ridder /Westermeyer. This building has got an annual heat requirement of approximately 10 kWh/(m²a).
Passive House In Europe already more than 6000 passive house units have been successfully built and completed. Positive feedback from inhabitants has confirmed what had been projected: 1.energy costs can be reduced drastically; 2.comfort of living increases significantly by using an energy efficient construction.
For Europe a dwelling is deemed to satisfy the Passive House criteria if: the total energy demand for space heating and cooling is less than 15 kWh/m2/yr treated floor area; the total primary energy use for all appliances, domestic hot water and space heating and cooling is less than 120 kWh/m2/yr.
Isolation in the University buildings On one hand the old buildings have a bad isolation because of the materials of the walls and the windows… On the other, the excess of glass surface in the new ones (such as RESOWI, which was the main example used) does not contribute to save energy and it also implies high costs due to mantainance.
A brieve view of the inner space of one of the Universitys buildings Some of the rooms in the University campus need artificial light even in a sunny day. On the other hand the excess of windows is also a problem in terms of isolation. How to solve this conflict? It is a question that remains for future projects…
Mirror technology … However a suggestion was made by professor Schleicher during one of his lectures; so we asked him to mention it during the interview. The idea is about a technology with mirrors that is used to introduce the outside light into closed rooms.
New Studies Usw 2003, Sustainable city developement 2007, Sustainable developement 2008, Sustainability4U The four Universities of Graz wanted to realize a better cooperation Usw, Sustanable developemnt This committee consists of at least two persons of one university, who are involved in the process of sustainable development each university.
"Oikos" (Students for sustainable economics and management) Wegener Zentrum Students Organization EuroEnviro
Results Vs. Hypothesis (1) The main assumption that changed is that the University is relatively doing very well in energy consumption. –The term relatively is included on purpose, because the affirmation is in comparison to the estimations made for the time period from 2006 to 2009.
Results Vs. Hypothesis On the other hand, the structures of our University buildings are not designed as in the case of passive houses, even though the technology exists. The changes that are needed require huge efforts, investments and agreements. The users daily practices do affect, as it was predicted.
To improve It is required a huge and inclusive effort from different participants in the university community: –the students, the professors and the employees of all levels up the top management. The question is: how to involve the individuals in a common project? –In this crusade the actions of organizations within the University is basic, but also the support of other organizations, it would be very useful.
References http://www.passivhaustagung.de/elfte/englis h/01_start_home.html http://www.calacademy.org/ http://clear.eawag.ch/optionen/co2reduktion/ subfolder/energieeffizienz/Oekomanagement. pdf Dunkel, Gerald H. Energiedienstleistungen für die Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Graz (2002)