Presentation on theme: "Human Resource Selection and Development Across Cultures (Selection, Compensation, Training) chapter 10."— Presentation transcript:
Human Resource Selection and Development Across Cultures (Selection, Compensation, Training) chapter 10
14-2 Chapter Objectives 1. IDENTIFY the three basic sources that MNCs can tap when filling management vacancies in overseas operations in addition to options of subcontracting and outsourcing. 2. DESCRIBE the selection criteria and procedures used by the organization and individual managers when making final decisions. 3. DESCRIBE the training process, the most common reasons for training and types of training often are provided.
14-3 4. DESCRIBE the common compensation packages that organization normally give to an expatriates. 5. EXPLAIN the relocation experience face by an employees when completing a task or an assignment
14-4 Sources of Human Resources MNCs can use four basic sources for filling overseas positions: (1) Home-Country Nationals (Expatriates): Expatriate managers are citizens of the country where the multinational corporation is headquartered Sometimes called headquarters nationals Most common reason for using home-country nationals (expatriates) is to get the overseas operation under way
14-5 Sources for Human Resources (2) Host-Country Nationals: Local managers hired by the MNC They are familiar with the culture They know the language They are less expensive than home-country personnel Hiring them is good public relations
14-6 Sources for Human Resources (3) Third-Country Nationals: Managers who are citizens of countries other than the country in which the MNC is headquartered or the one in which the managers are assigned to work by the MNC These people have the necessary expertise for the job
14-7 Sources for Human Resources (4) Inpatriates: Individuals from a host country or a third-country national who are assigned to work in the home country The use of inpatriates recognizes the need for diversity at the home office Use of inpats helps MNCs better develop their global core competencies MNCs can subcontract or outsource to take advantage of lower human resource costs and increase flexibility
14-8 Selection Criteria for International Assignments: Managers Adaptability Independence Self-reliance Physical & emotional health Age Experience Education Knowledge of local language Motivation Support of spouse & children Leadership
14-9 Selection Criteria for International Assignments Organizations examine a number of characteristics to determine whether an individual is sufficiently adaptable. –Work experiences with cultures other than one’s own –Previous overseas travel –Knowledge of foreign languages –Recent immigration background or heritage –Ability to integrate with different people, cultures, and types of business organizations
14-10 Selection Criteria for International Assignments Those who were best able to deal with their new situation had developed coping strategies characterized by socio-cultural and psychological adjustments including: –Feeling comfortable that their work challenges can be met –Being able to adjust to their new living conditions –Learning how to interact well with host-country nationals outside of work –Feeling reasonably happy and being able to enjoy day-to-day activities
14-11 Selection Criteria for International Assignments Applicants better prepare themselves for international assignments by carrying out the following three phases: Phase 1: Focus on self-evaluation and general awareness include the following questions: Is an international assignment really for me? Does my spouse and family support the decision to go international? Collect general information on available jobs
14-12 Selection Criteria for International Assignments (continued) Phase 2: Conduct a technical skills assessment – Do I have the technical skills required for the job? Start learning the language, customs, and etiquette of the region you will be posted Develop an awareness of the culture and value systems of the geographic area Inform your superior of your interest in the international assignment
14-13 Selection Criteria for International Assignments (continued) Phase 3: Attend training sessions provided by the company Confer with colleagues who have had experience in the assigned region Speak with expatriates and foreign nationals about the assigned country Visit the host country with your spouse before the formally scheduled departure (if possible)
14-14 The Adjustment Process In recent years, international HRM specialist have developed models that help to explain the factors involved in effectively adjusting to overseas assignments. There are 2 types of adjustment : 1. Anticipatory Adjustment (carried out before the person leaves for the assignment) –Training (pre-departure training) cross cultural seminar or workshop –Previous experience 2. In-country Adjustment –Individual’s ability to adjust effectively –Ability to maintain a positive outlook, interact well with host nationals, and to perceive and evaluate the host country’s cultural values and norms correctly
14-15 –Clarity of expatriate’s role in the host management team –Expatriate’s adjustment to the organizational culture –Non-work matters TRANSITION PROCESS
14-16 1.Honeymoon phase the feeling of enchantment and excitement in the new environment. Can last for months or weeks 2. Crisis phase A deeper exploration of the environment and a realization that it is fundamentally different from home. Important – the expatriate ability to maintain a positive outlook in the face of a high pressure situation, to interact well with host nationals and to perceive and evaluate the host country’s cultural values and norms correctly.
14-17 3. Recovery Letting go of past comfortable attitudes. The realization that you are a stranger in a strange land. 4. Adjustment phase Experimentation and testing of new approaches. Practice phase, trying to do things differently. Feedback of results, success and failure. Understand reasons for success and failure. Integrate of new skills and behavior and accept of the new environment. Balance personal and work demand in new environment
14-18 Common Elements of Compensation Packages One of the ways in which MNCs often try to put potential expats at ease about new assignment is by presenting an attractive compensation package Compensating expatriates can be difficult because there are many variables to consider Most compensation packages are designed around four common elements: Allowances Taxes Base Salary Benefits
14-19 Common Elements of Compensation Packages Base salary –Amount of money that an expatriate normally receives in the home country –Expatriate salaries typically are set according to the base pay of the home countries –Ex : German manager working for US MNC and assigned to Spain would have a base salary that reflects the salary structure in Germany. –The salaries usually are paid in home currency, local currency or a combination of the two. –The base pay also serves as the benchmark against which bonuses and benefits are calculated
14-20 Benefits A number of thorny issues surround compensation for expatriates, that include : –Should host-country legislation regarding termination of employment affects employee benefits entitlements? –Is the home or host country responsible for the expatriates’ social security benefits? –Should benefits be subject to the requirements of the home or host country? –Which country should pay for the benefits? –Should other benefits be used to offset any shortfall in coverage? –Should home-country benefits programs be available to local nationals? –MNCs often provide expatriates with extra vacation and with special leaves. The MNC typically will pay the airfare for the expats and their families to make an annual visit home, for emergency leave and for expenses when a relative in the home country is ill or dies.
14-21 Common Elements of Compensation Packages Allowances Allowances are an expensive feature of expatriate compensation package. One of the common part is : –Cost-of-Living Allowance Payment for differences between the home country and the overseas assignment. Designed to provide the expatriate the same standard of living enjoyed in the home country –May cover a variety of expenses, including relocation, housing, education, and hardship –Incentives A growing number of firms have replaced the ongoing premium for overseas assignments with a one-time, lump-sum premium Hardship allowances are designed to induce expats to work in hazardous areas or in area with a poor quality of life. Ex : China
14-22 Common Elements of Compensation Packages Taxes –Tax equalization –An expatriate may have two tax bills for the same pay. (In US) Host country U.S. Internal Revenue Service –MNCs usually pay the extra tax burden –Any taxes that exceed what would have been imposed in the home country are paid by the MNC and any windfall (any unexpected gain) is kept by the expat are a reward for taking the assignment.
14-23 Repatriation of Expatriates Repatriation – the return to one’s home country from an overseas management assignment. To help smooth the adjustment from an overseas to a stateside assignment, some MNCs have developed transition strategies. Transition strategies – the firm tells an individual how long she or he will be posted overseas and promises to give the individual, on return, a job that is mutually accepted. –Repatriation Agreements Firm agrees with individual how long she or he will be posted overseas and promises to give the individual, on return, a job that is mutually acceptable
14-24 Repatriation of Expatriates Reasons for returning to home country –Most expatriates return home from overseas assignments when their formally agreed-on tour of duty is over –Some want their children educated in a home-country school –Some are not happy in their overseas assignment –Some return because they failed to do a good job Readjustment problems –“Out of sight, out of mind” syndrome –Organizational changes –Technological advances –Adjusting to the new job back home
14-25 –Some of the main problems of repatriation include: Adjusting to life back home Facing a financial package that is not as good as that overseas Having less autonomy in the stateside job than in the overseas position Not receiving any career counseling from the company
14-26 MNC can address these type of problems. Some of the suggested by experts are : 1.Arrange an event to welcome and recognize the employee and family either formally or informally 2.Establish support to facilitate family reintegration 3.Offer repatriation counseling or workshops to ease the adjustment 4.Assist the spouse with job counseling, resume writing and interviewing technique 5.Provide educational program for the children 6.Provide the employee with a thorough debriefing by facilitator to identify new knowledge, insights (an understanding of something) and skills and to provide a forum to showcase new competencies. 7.Offer international outplacement to the employee and reentry counseling to the entire family if no positions are possible. 8.Arrange a post assignment interview with the expatriate and spouse to review their view of the assignment and to address any repatriation issues.
14-27 Training in International Management Training is a process of altering employee behavior and attitudes in a way that increase the probability of goal attainment. The most common topics covered in cultural training are social etiquette, customs, economics, history, politics and business etiquette Four basic philosophic positions that can influence the training program are: –(1) Ethnocentric MNC Stresses nationalism and often puts home-office people in charge of key international management positions –(2) Polycentric MNC Places local nationals in key positions and allows these managers to appoint and develop their own people
14-28 Training in International Management –(3) Regiocentric MNC Relies on local managers from a particular geographic region to handle operations in and around that area –(4) Geocentric MNC Seeks to integrate diverse regions of the world through a global approach to decision making All four of these philosophical positions can be found in the multinational arena and each puts a different type of training demand on the MNC. Ex : ethnocentric MNCs will do all training at HQ, polycentric MNCs will rely on local managers to assume responsibility for seeing that the training function is carried out.
14-29 Training in International Management Reasons for training 1. Corporate/ organizational Reasons for Training –To overcome ethnocentrism The belief that one’s own way of doing things is superior to that of others To improve the flow of communication between the home office and the international subsidiaries and branches To increase overall efficiency and profitability
14-30 2. Personal reasons –To train overseas managers to improve their ability to interact effectively with local people in general and with their personnel in particular –Increasing numbers of training programs address social topics – these programs also focus on dispelling myths and stereotypes by replacing them with facts about the culture
14-31 Cross-Cultural Training Programs Major types of cross-cultural training programs 1. Environmental Briefings Provide information about things such as geography, climate, housing, and schools 2. Cultural Orientation Familiarize the individual with cultural institutions and value systems of the host country – home and work
14-32 Cross-Cultural Training Programs 3. Cultural Assimilators – Programmed learning techniques designed to expose members of one culture to some of the basic concepts, attitudes, role perceptions, customs, and values of another culture – Provide information about things such as geography, climate, housing and schools. 4. Language Training - Learn about the host country language - English is a primary language of International Business – expatriate should know and learn this language and other languages especially for non-english country
14-33 Cross-Cultural Training 5. Field Experience – Send participant to the country of assignment to undergo some of the emotional stress of living and working with people from a different culture 6. Sensitivity Training – Develop attitudinal flexibility (do and don’t)
14-34 Cross-Cultural Training Programs A variety of other approaches can be used to prepare managers for international assignments including: –Visits to the host country –Briefings by host-country managers –In-house management programs –Training in local negotiation techniques –Analysis of behavioral practices that have proven most effective