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Palermo June 14, 2010 University of Palermo Head of the Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Applications University of Palermo - University.

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Presentation on theme: "Palermo June 14, 2010 University of Palermo Head of the Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Applications University of Palermo - University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Palermo June 14, 2010 University of Palermo Head of the Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Applications University of Palermo - University of Palermo - MEDILAB - Remote sensing and Geographical Information System Lab "MEDITERRANEAN MARITIME POLLUTION: THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING TO MONITOR AND MITIGATE" Prof. Goffredo La Loggia Authors: Goffredo La Loggia, Fulvio Capodici, Giuseppe Ciraolo, Antonino Maltese

2 Human activities contaminate both coastal zone and open sea: - pollutants; - ecosystems; - recovery time. Pollution monitoring and mitigation by integrating: - remote sensing, - hydrodynamic; - bio-optical modelling. Coastal water pollution is strictly related to land activities: - 60% of worlds population lives within 60 km from the coastline impacting water quality. - Pesticides and fertilizers over-application: - coastal zone algae growth; - natural food chain alteration; -coastal waters oxygen deprivation. Offshore pollution is related to maritime oil transport: - a quarter of the global maritime traffic; - causing 7% of the world oil accidents during the last 25 years; - biological impacts firstly on open sea than on coastal zone habitats. The need of monitoring and mitigate maritime pollution

3 Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation Offshore Coast, lagoon and lakes The Planktothrix rubescens bloom (Oscillatoria rubescens) in some Sicilian lakes. Water quality Oil spill - The contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human healthy risks - Spectral reflectance R( ) [-] of a typical Sicilian lake water (dashed line) and that of a water characterized by a Planktothrix rubescens algal bloom (continuous line). Water quality Toxic blooms Submerged vegetation distribution and dynamic Hydrodynamic and solute transport models

4 Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation Offshore Coast, lagoon and lakes Water quality Toxic blooms Submerged vegetation distribution and dynamic Hydrodynamic and solute transport models CALIBRATION SITE, CALIBRATION PARAMETERS AND NTU (WATER TURBIDITY) MAP Water quality Surface Clorophyll (Chl-a); Total Sunspended Sediments (TSS) Water Nephelometric Turbidity (NTU) Oil spill 2D model (finite difference) The Castellammare gulf The Augusta gulf The Gela gulf NTU July 2008

5 Recent accidents in the Mediterranean sea Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation Offshore Coast, lagoon and lakes Water quality Toxic blooms Submerged vegetation distribution and dynamic Hydrodynamic and solute transport models Water quality Oil spill The note deepens on the Oil spill issue reporting the MAPRES research project Marine pollution monitoring and detection by aerial surveillance and satellite images

6 Effects of large spills\ Vegetation Animals Economic activities Oil spill pollution

7 Oil Spill events Principal oil spill events in Europe 1.Atlantic Empress 2.ABT Summer 3.Castillo de Bellver 4.Amoco Cadiz 5.Haven 6.Odyssey 7.Torrey Canyon 8.Urquiola 9.Hawaiian Patriot 10.Independenta 11.Jakob Maersk 12.Braer 13.Khark 5 14.Aegean Sea 15.Sea Empress 16.Katina P. 17.Assmi 18.Metula 19.Wafra 20.Exxon Valdez DATALOCALITA'NAVE SVERSAMENTI (t) Marzo 1967 Gran Bretagna Gran Bretagna Torrey Canion Gennaio 1975 Portogallo Jacob Maersk Maggio 1976 SpagnaUrquiola Marzo 1978 Francia Amoco Cadiz Dicembre 1978 Spagna Andros Patria Aprile 1979 FranciaGino Novembre1979BosforoIndependenta Febbraio 1980 GreciaIrenes Aprile 1991 ItaliaHaven Dicembre 1992 Spagna Aegeum Sea Gennaio 1993 Gran Bretagna Braer Febbraio 1996 Gran Bretagna Sea Empress Dicembre 1999 FranciaErika Dicembre 2002 SpagnaPrestige77.000

8 Oil pollutions types SYSTEMATIC OPERATIVEACCIDENTAL Industrial discharges Tank washing Bilge waters discharges Ballast water discharges Oil tanker accident Pipeline break Oil platform accident Oil terminal accident Prestigie

9 Oil transportation

10 Spain 13 th July 2007 Ship Don Pedro had been sailing from Ibiza to the eastern port city of Valencia when it hit rocks and sank Wednesday with 150 tons of fuel oil and 50 tons of gasoline on board

11 Spain 13 th July 2007 Three Ibiza beaches: Talamanca, Ses Figueretes and Platja de Bossa were closed while crews cleaned up the spill

12 Il caso della Prestige (Novembre 2002) Immagine ASAR (radar ad apertura sintetica) ENVISAT dellESA Direzione del vento

13 Oil slicks individuate tramite SAR : Scarichi illeciti : numero di spills individuati nel 1999: 1638 per un totale di tn UNA APPLICAZIONE NEL CANALE DI SICILIA E STATA REALIZZATA NELLAMBITO DEL PROGETTO MAPRES

14 MAPRES rationale and general description

15 The project has been implemented in the following Countries: Italy, Republic of Malta, United Kingdom The starting date was: January 2007 The ending date was: December 2007 Duration: 12 months

16 MAPRES actors National Interuniversity Consortium for Marine Sciences - CoNISMa: with two local research units: - L.R.U. 1 Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Applications– University of Palermo - D.I.I.A.A. (ITA). - L.R.U. 2 Department for the study of the territory and its resources - University of Genova - DIP.TE.RIS. (ITA). Partnership: Lattanzio e Associati (LEA) – Italy University of Malta (UOM) - International Ocean Institute –Malta Operational Centre (MT) The University of Edinburgh (UEDIN) - School of GeoSciences, Grant Institute (UK) End users: - Italian Coast Guard; - Genova town district.

17 MAPRES rationale and general description OIL SPILL DETECTION OIL SPILL propagation forecasting OIL SPILL mitigations procedures MAPRES exercise Remotely sensed data from: ActivePassive Active and Passive sensors Hydrodynamic Numerical Simulations Impact on coastal environment and best practices for mitigation and damage recovery Using guidelines coming from preceding tasks Expected result: Operating Manual

18 Example of Airborne Based Multi-Sensors ACTIVE SENSORS Radar : The sensor mainly used is SLAR (Side Looking Airborne Radar). Works on the X-band (f=9375 MHz, =3.2 cm) Laser fluorosensors (for oil tickness), : Based on the fact that Fluorescence is a strong indicator of the presence of oil. Works on the UV (300 to 355 nm), VIS region PASSIVE SENSORS IR/UV system,Thermal IR camera, VIS camera… RadarIRUV

19 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING CONISMA L.R.U. 1 Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica ed Applicazioni Ambientali (D.I.I.A.A.) - University of Palermo (ITA) Scientific Coordinator: Prof. Enrico Napoli University of Malta (UOM) - International Ocean Institute –Malta Operational Centre (MT) Scientific Coordinator: Dr. Aldo Drago

20 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING THE NEED Use an operational system for predicting the fate and transportation of an oil spill in the Malta Channel Use an operational system for predicting the fate and transportation of an oil spill in the Malta Channel Develop coastal models to detail the areas around the Maltese Islands and Pozzallo Develop coastal models to detail the areas around the Maltese Islands and Pozzallo In case of emergency, oil spill models help to determine... In case of emergency, oil spill models help to determine... where will the oil slick move to where will the oil slick move to when will it get there when will it get there what will be its state when it arrives what will be its state when it arrives

21 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING Ocean satellite & in situ observations Regional/shelf/ Regional/shelf/ coastal models coastal models Operational oil spill model Operational ocean model Operational ocean model Operational atmospheric forecasts Data Assimilation nesting and downscaling Elaboration of fields Oil spill characteristcs and conditions Response MEDSLIK model The models solves the free-surface Reynolds and continuity equations in 3D

22 1 st level: coarse grid, the Ocean General Circulation Model, operating on the whole Mediterranean Sea (resolution 1/8 degrees) OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING

23 2 nd level: the regional scale Circulation Model, operating on the Sicilian channel (resolution 1/32 degrees) OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING

24 3 rd level: the Rosario Shelf Model, operating on the Maltese channel (resolution 1/64 degrees) OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING

25 A novel level: the Coastal Model, operating with a 1/512 degrees resolution Malta Coastal Model Pozzallo Coastal Model OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING

26 344 cells: E-W direction 280 cells: N-S direction 19 cells: depth Spatial resolution 1/512° x 1/512° The total number of cells is The Malta Coastal Model

27 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING examples 61 hr simulation using the Malta Shelf Model 61 hr simulation restarted at 25 hrs using Malta Shelf Model and the higher resolution Malta Coastal Model

28 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING examples Coastal Oil Distribution No Boom Coastal Oil Distribution With Boom

29 THE MAPRES EXERCISE COMANDO GENERALE DEL CORPO DELLE CAPITANERIE DI PORTO Pozzallo and Catania sections THE VEGA 2007 EXERCISE C.V.(CP) Paolo Cafaro e del C.F. (CP) Marco Mancini

30 THE MAPRES EXERCISE DATE : 28 E 29 NOVEMER 2007 PLACE: POZZALLO – PIATTAFORMA VEGA; ACTORS: - Coast Guard ships: CP 316 – CP Coast Guard airplanes: ATR42 MP- Manta 10-02, Piaggio P166dl3-SEM Orca 8-01; Supply vessels: Ecol Roma and Kerob Express. SIMULATED SPILL: 10 tons od petrol (2 ton of Rice Hull) In Catania Coast Guard aerial base researchers analyzed the hydrodynamic simulation forecast and compared the results vs the acquired data. The position of the husk rice retrieved by means of remotely sensed data were compared to the simulations of the hydrodynamic forecast model.

31 ATR42 THE MAPRES EXERCISE

32 MEDILAB Water Activities MEDILAB Water Activities Pozzallo SIMULATION 29 th November 2007

33 THE MAPRES EXERCISE

34 Palermo June 14, 2010 University of Palermo Head of the Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Applications University of Palermo - University of Palermo - MEDILAB - Remote sensing and Geographical Information System Lab "MEDITERRANEAN MARITIME POLLUTION: THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING TO MONITOR AND MITIGATE" Prof. Goffredo La Loggia Authors: Goffredo La Loggia, Fulvio Capodici, Giuseppe Ciraolo, Antonino Maltese Thanks for your attention


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