Presentation on theme: "Prof. Goffredo La Loggia"— Presentation transcript:
1 Prof. Goffredo La Loggia "MEDITERRANEAN MARITIME POLLUTION:THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING TO MONITOR AND MITIGATE"Prof. Goffredo La LoggiaHead of the Department ofHydraulic Engineering and Environmental ApplicationsUniversity of Palermo -MEDILAB - Remote sensing and Geographical Information System LabAuthors: Goffredo La Loggia, Fulvio Capodici, Giuseppe Ciraolo, Antonino MaltesePalermo June 14, 2010University of Palermo
2 The need of monitoring and mitigate maritime pollution Human activities contaminate both coastal zone and open sea:pollutants;ecosystems;recovery time.Pollution monitoring and mitigation by integrating:- remote sensing,- hydrodynamic;bio-optical modelling.Coastal water pollution is strictly related to land activities:≈ 60% of world’s population lives within 60 km from the coastline impacting water quality.Pesticides and fertilizers over-application:- coastal zone algae growth;- natural food chain alteration;coastal waters oxygen deprivation.Offshore pollution is related to maritime oil transport:a quarter of the global maritime traffic;causing ≈7% of the world oil accidents during the last 25 years;biological impacts firstly on open sea than on coastal zone habitats.
3 Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation Coast, lagoon and lakesOffshoreWater qualityToxic bloomsSubmerged vegetation distribution and dynamicHydrodynamic and solute transport modelsWater qualityOil spillThe Planktothrix rubescens bloom (Oscillatoria rubescens) in some Sicilian lakes.- The contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human healthy risks- Spectral reflectance R(l) [-] of a typical Sicilian lake water (dashed line) and that of a water characterized by a Planktothrix rubescens algal bloom (continuous line).
4 Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation Coast, lagoon and lakesOffshoreWater qualityToxic bloomsSubmerged vegetation distribution and dynamicHydrodynamic and solute transport modelsWater qualitySurface Clorophyll (Chl-a);Total Sunspended Sediments (TSS)Water Nephelometric Turbidity (NTU)Oil spillCALIBRATION SITE, CALIBRATION PARAMETERS AND NTU (WATER TURBIDITY) MAP2D model (finite difference)The Castellammare gulfThe Augusta gulfThe Gela gulfNTU July 2008
5 Water Bodies pollution monitoring and mitigation Coast, lagoon and lakesOffshoreWater qualityToxic bloomsSubmerged vegetation distribution and dynamicHydrodynamic and solute transport modelsWater qualityOil spillThe note deepens on the Oil spill issue reporting the MAPRES research projectMarine pollution monitoring and detection by aerial surveillance and satellite imagesRecent accidents in the Mediterranean sea
6 Effects of large spills\ Oil spill pollutionEffects of large spills\VegetationAnimalsEconomic activitiesnes
7 Principal oil spill events in Europe 1.Atlantic Empress2.ABT Summer3.Castillo de Bellver4.Amoco Cadiz5.Haven6.Odyssey7.Torrey Canyon8.Urquiola9.Hawaiian Patriot10.Independenta11.Jakob Maersk12.Braer13.Khark 514.Aegean Sea15.Sea Empress16.Katina P.17.Assmi18.Metula19.Wafra20.Exxon ValdezDATALOCALITA'NAVESVERSAMENTI (t)Marzo 1967Gran Bretagna Torrey CanionGennaio 1975PortogalloJacob Maersk84.000Maggio 1976SpagnaUrquiolaMarzo 1978FranciaAmoco CadizDicembre 1978Andros Patria47.000Aprile 1979Gino42.000Novembre1979BosforoIndependenta95.000Febbraio 1980GreciaIrenesAprile 1991ItaliaHavenDicembre 1992Aegeum Sea80.000Gennaio 1993Gran BretagnaBraer85.000Febbraio 1996Sea Empress60.000Dicembre 1999Erika31.000Dicembre 2002Prestige77.000nesPrincipal oil spill events in Europe
10 Spain 13th July 2007Ship “Don Pedro” had been sailing from Ibiza to the eastern port city of Valencia when it hit rocks and sank Wednesday with 150 tons of fuel oil and 50 tons of gasoline on boardnes
11 Spain 13th July 2007 Three Ibiza beaches: Talamanca, Ses Figueretes and Platja de Bossawere closed while crews cleaned up the spillnes
12 Il caso della “Prestige” (Novembre 2002) Direzione del ventoImmagine ASAR (radar ad apertura sintetica) ENVISAT dell’ESA
13 Oil slicks individuate tramite SAR Scarichi illeciti: numero di spills individuati nel 1999: per un totale di tnUNA APPLICAZIONE NEL CANALE DI SICILIA E’ STATA REALIZZATA NELL’AMBITO DEL PROGETTO MAPRES
15 MAPRES rationale and general description The project has been implemented in the following Countries:Italy, Republic of Malta, United KingdomThe starting date was: January 2007The ending date was: December 2007Duration: 12 months
16 MAPRES actorsNational Interuniversity Consortium for Marine Sciences - CoNISMa: with two local research units:- L.R.U. 1 Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Applications– University of Palermo - D.I.I.A.A. (ITA).- L.R.U. 2 Department for the study of the territory and its resources - University of Genova - DIP.TE.RIS. (ITA).Partnership:Lattanzio e Associati (LEA) – ItalyUniversity of Malta (UOM) - International Ocean Institute –Malta Operational Centre (MT)The University of Edinburgh (UEDIN) - School of GeoSciences, Grant Institute (UK)End users:- Italian Coast Guard;- Genova town district.
17 MAPRES rationale and general description Remotely sensed data from:Active and Passive sensorsOIL SPILL DETECTIONOIL SPILL propagation forecastingHydrodynamic Numerical SimulationsImpact on coastal environment and best practices for mitigation and damage recoveryOIL SPILL mitigations proceduresUsing guidelines coming from preceding tasksMAPRES exerciseExpected result: Operating Manual
18 Example of Airborne Based Multi-Sensors ACTIVE SENSORSRadar : The sensor mainly used is SLAR (Side Looking Airborne Radar). Works on the X-band (f=9375 MHz, l=3.2 cm)Laser fluorosensors (for oil tickness), :Based on the fact that Fluorescence is a strong indicatorof the presence of oil.Works on the UV (300 to 355 nm) , VIS regionPASSIVE SENSORSIR/UV system ,Thermal IR camera,VIS camera…RadarIRUVnes
19 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING CONISMA L.R.U. 1“Dipartimento di Ingegneria Idraulica ed Applicazioni Ambientali (D.I.I.A.A.)” - University of Palermo (ITA)Scientific Coordinator: Prof. Enrico NapoliUniversity of Malta (UOM) - International Ocean Institute –Malta Operational Centre (MT)Scientific Coordinator: Dr. Aldo Drago
20 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING THE NEEDUse an operational system for predicting the fate and transportation of an oil spill in the Malta ChannelDevelop coastal models to detail the areas around the Maltese Islands and PozzalloIn case of emergency, oil spill models help to determine ...where will the oil slick move towhen will it get therewhat will be its state when it arrives
21 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING Ocean satellite& in situ observationsOil spill characteristcs and conditionsData AssimilationOperational ocean modelOperational oil spill modelRegional/shelf/coastal modelsnesting and downscalingElaborationof fieldsOperational atmospheric forecastsResponseMEDSLIK modelThe models solves the free-surface Reynolds and continuity equations in 3D
22 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING 1st level: coarse grid, the Ocean General Circulation Model, operating on the whole Mediterranean Sea (resolution 1/8 degrees)nes
23 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING 2nd level: the regional scale Circulation Model, operating on the Sicilian channel(resolution 1/32 degrees)nes
24 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING 3rd level: the Rosario Shelf Model, operating on the Maltese channel (resolution 1/64 degrees)nes
25 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING NESTING A novel level: the Coastal Model, operating with a 1/512 degrees resolutionMalta Coastal ModelPozzallo Coastal Modelnes
26 The Malta Coastal Model The total number of cells is 1.926.400 Spatial resolution1/512° x 1/512°344 cells:E-W direction280 cells:N-S direction19 cells: depthThe total number of cells is
27 OIL SPILL PROPAGATION FORECASTING examples 61 hr simulation restarted at 25 hrs using Malta Shelf Modeland the higher resolution Malta Coastal Model61 hr simulation using the Malta Shelf Model
29 THE VEGA 2007 EXERCISE THE MAPRES EXERCISE COMANDO GENERALE DEL CORPO DELLE CAPITANERIE DI PORTOPozzallo and Catania sectionsTHE VEGA 2007 EXERCISEC.V.(CP) Paolo Cafaro e del C.F. (CP) Marco Mancini
30 SIMULATED SPILL: 10 tons od petrol (2 ton of “Rice Hull”) THE MAPRES EXERCISEDATE : 28 E 29 NOVEMER 2007PLACE: POZZALLO – PIATTAFORMA VEGA;ACTORS:- Coast Guard ships: CP 316 – CP 2113- Coast Guard airplanes: ATR42 MP- “Manta 10-02”, Piaggio P166dl3-SEM “Orca 8-01”;Supply vessels: Ecol Roma and Kerob Express.SIMULATED SPILL: 10 tons od petrol (2 ton of “Rice Hull”)In Catania Coast Guard aerial base researchers analyzed the hydrodynamic simulation forecast and compared the results vs the acquired data.The position of the husk rice retrieved by means of remotely sensed data were compared to the simulations of the hydrodynamic forecast model.
34 Thanks for your attention "MEDITERRANEAN MARITIME POLLUTION:THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING TO MONITOR AND MITIGATE"Prof. Goffredo La LoggiaHead of the Department ofHydraulic Engineering and Environmental ApplicationsUniversity of Palermo -MEDILAB - Remote sensing and Geographical Information System LabThanks for your attentionAuthors: Goffredo La Loggia, Fulvio Capodici, Giuseppe Ciraolo, Antonino MaltesePalermo June 14, 2010University of Palermo