Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byDestiny Fox Modified over 3 years ago

1
**2. The WAM Model: Solves energy balance equation, including Snonlin**

WAM Group (early 1980’s) State of the art models could not handle rapidly varying conditions. Super-computers. Satellite observations: Radar Altimeter, Scatterometer, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) . Two implementations at ECMWF: Global (0.5 0.5 reduced latitude-longitude). Coupled with the atmospheric model (2-way). Historically: 3, 1.5 then 0.5 (Future: 0.36) Limited Area covering North Atlantic + European Seas (0.25 0.25) Historically: 0.5 covering the Mediterranean only. Both implementations use a discretisation of 30 frequencies 24 directions (used to be 25 freq.12 dir.) The Wave Model (ECWAM)

2
**2.1. Energy Balance for Wind Sea**

Summarise knowledge in terms of empirical growth curves. Idealised situation of duration-limited waves ‘Relevant’ parameters: , u10(u*) , g , , surface tension, a , w , fo , t Physics of waves: reduction to Duration-limited growth not feasible: In practice fully- developed and fetch-limited situations are more relevant. , u10(u*) , g , t The Wave Model (ECWAM)

3
**Connection between theory and experiments: wave-number spectrum:**

Old days H1/3 H1/3 Hs (exact for narrow-band spectrum) 2-D wave number spectrum is hard to observe frequency spectrum One-dimensional frequency spectrum Use same symbol, F , for: The Wave Model (ECWAM)

4
Let us now return to analysis of wave evolution: Fully-developed: Fetch-limited: However, scaling with friction velocity u is to be preferred over u10 since u10 introduces an additional length scale, z = 10 m , which is not relevant. In practice, we use u10 (as u is not available). The Wave Model (ECWAM)

5
**JONSWAP fetch relations (1973):**

Empirical growth relations against measurements Evolution of spectra with fetch (JONSWAP) Hz km The Wave Model (ECWAM)

6
**Distinction between wind sea and swell wind sea:**

A term used for waves that are under the effect of their generating wind. Occurs in storm tracks of NH and SH. Nonlinear. swell: A term used for wave energy that propagates out of storm area. Dominant in the Tropics. Nearly linear. Results with WAM model: fetch-limited. duration-limited [wind-wave interaction]. The Wave Model (ECWAM)

7
**Fetch-limited growth Remarks:**

WAM model scales with u Drag coefficient, Using wind profile CD depends on wind: Hence, scaling with u gives different results compared to scaling with u10. In terms of u10 , WAM model gives a family of growth curves! [u was not observed during JONSWAP.] The Wave Model (ECWAM)

8
**Dimensionless energy:**

Note: JONSWAP mean wind ~ m/s Dimensionless peak frequency: The Wave Model (ECWAM)

9
Phillips constant is a measure of the steepness of high-frequency waves. Young waves have large steepness. 1000 p The Wave Model (ECWAM)

10
**Duration-limited growth **

Infinite ocean, no advection single grid point. Wind speed, u10 = 18 m/s u = 0.85 m/s Two experiments: uncoupled: no slowing-down of air flow Charnock parameter is constant ( = ) coupled: slowing-down of air flow is taken into account by a parameterisation of Charnock parameter that depends on w: = { w / } (Komen et al., 1994) The Wave Model (ECWAM)

11
**Time dependence of wave height for a reference run and a coupled run.**

The Wave Model (ECWAM)

12
**Time dependence of Phillips parameter, p , for **

a reference run and a coupled run. The Wave Model (ECWAM)

13
**Time dependence of wave-induced stress for **

a reference run and a coupled run. The Wave Model (ECWAM)

14
**Time dependence of drag coefficient, CD , for **

a reference run and a coupled run. The Wave Model (ECWAM)

15
**Evolution in time of the one-dimensional frequency **

spectral density (m2/Hz) Evolution in time of the one-dimensional frequency spectrum for the coupled run. The Wave Model (ECWAM)

16
**The energy balance for young wind sea.**

The Wave Model (ECWAM)

17
**The energy balance for old wind sea.**

-2 -1 The energy balance for old wind sea. The Wave Model (ECWAM)

18
**SWADE case WAM model is a reliable tool.**

2.2. Wave Forecasting Sensitivity to wind-field errors. For fully developed wind sea: Hs = 0.22 u102 / g 10% error in u10 20% error in Hs from observed Hs Atmospheric state needs reliable wave model. SWADE case WAM model is a reliable tool. The Wave Model (ECWAM)

19
**Verification of model wind speeds with observations**

—— OW/AES winds …… ECMWF winds Verification of model wind speeds with observations (OW/AES: Ocean Weather/Atmospheric Environment Service) The Wave Model (ECWAM)

20
**Verification of WAM wave heights with observations**

—— OW/AES winds …… ECMWF winds Verification of WAM wave heights with observations (OW/AES: Ocean Weather/Atmospheric Environment Service) The Wave Model (ECWAM)

21
**Validation of wind & wave analysis using satellite & buoy. **

Altimeters onboard ERS-1/2, ENVISAT and Jason Quality is monitored daily. Monthly collocation plots SD 0.5 0.3 m for waves (recent SI 12-15%) SD 2.0 1.2 m/s for wind (recent SI 16-18%) Wave Buoys (and other in-situ instruments) SD 0.85 0.45 m for waves (recent SI 16-20%) SD 2.6 1.2 m/s for wind (recent SI 16-21%) The Wave Model (ECWAM)

22
**Buoy observations are not representative for aerial average.**

Problems with buoys: Atmospheric model assimilates winds from buoys (height ~ 4m) but regards them as 10 m winds [~10% error] Buoy observations are not representative for aerial average. Problems with satellite Altimeters: The Wave Model (ECWAM)

23
**Quality of wave forecast Compare forecast with verifying analysis. **

Forecast error, standard deviation of error ( ), persistence. Period: three months (January-March 1995). Tropics is better predictable because of swell: Daily errors for July-September Note the start of Autumn. New: 1. Anomaly correlation 2. Verification of forecast against buoy data. The Wave Model (ECWAM)

Similar presentations

OK

Page 1 ASAR Validatoin Review - ESRIN – 9-13 December 2002 Ocean geophysical results from ASAR Geophysical overview ocean spectra : the isidore case.

Page 1 ASAR Validatoin Review - ESRIN – 9-13 December 2002 Ocean geophysical results from ASAR Geophysical overview ocean spectra : the isidore case.

© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google

Differential display ppt on ipad Research presentation ppt on caterpillar Ppt on eye os online Ppt on natural resources and conservation in south Ppt on stock market Ppt on basic computer hardware Ppt on meeting skills training Ppt on acid-base indicators chemistry Ppt on banking sector in pakistan Ppt on renewable energy