Presentation on theme: "Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization"— Presentation transcript:
1Political Reform and Reaction to Industrialization Europe, the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, and Japan
2Industrial Order 1850-1914 Industrial Development continued Governments developed new functionsRise of socialism changed political conditionsUrban growth continued; improved living conditionsIndustrialization continued to spread outside of Europe bringing new social order. As it did, government developed new functions as lower-class groups began to turn to them to compensate for industrial change. Urban artisans pressed for social reform and women agitated for equal rights. Others sought liberal constitutions, social reforms restricting industrialization, and the termination of manorialism. There was a realignment of the political spectrum and social issues became the key criteria for partisanship.Urban growth continued as conditions in cities provided more opportunity for a better lifestyle.
3Europe Increased voting rights Benjamin DisraeliCavour and BismarckUS Civil War ended sectional rights and abolished slaveryFrance increased voting rightsMost Western nations had a parliamentary system where basic liberties were protected and political parties contested peacefully for officeOne change that continued to grow was the increase of voting rights. Disraeli enacted rights for working males in 1867, Cavour in Italy extended parliaments power, and Bismarck of Prussia extended the vote to all adult men. In the US, the civil war brought an end to slavery and instituted rights that would allow former slaves to vote. France established a conservative republic based on full adult male suffrage.Most Western nations had a parliamentary system where basic liberties were protected and political parties contested peacefully for office.
4Reactions to Industrialization The prevailing theory of the industrial revolution was Capitalism. However, after 1870, the expanded role of government encouraged thought about how best to counteract the negative effects of capitalism.Socialism depended on working-class grievances. Born of a commitment to remedy the economic and moral defects of capitalism, it has far surpassed capitalism in both economic malfunction and moral cruelty. This movement is defined as a centrally planned economy in which the government controls all means of production. This way the excesses and abuses of owners could be regulated. It was the tragic failure of the twentieth century. There were too many practical difficulties of organizing an economic system without the driving incentives of profit seeking or the self-generating constraints of competition.Utopian socialism, is the name given to socialist aspiration in the era prior to the development of industrial capitalism. It refers to the yearning for an egalitarian society, but without the scientific analysis of social evolution that modern scientific socialism provides. New sects advocated "alternative societies" consisting of people understandably disillusioned by the dominant society of our time-capitalism-and seeking alternative lifestyles to that of the modern wage-slave. These communities range from the genuinely democratic on the one hand, to the authoritarian and cultish on the other. They emphasize the common ownership and consumption of goods.British economist Jeremy Bentham is most often associated with his theory of utilitarianism, the idea that all social actions should be evaluated by the axiom “It is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong.” Counter to Adam Smith’s vision of “natural rights,” Bentham believed that there were no natural rights to be interfered with. He had a more interventionist stance. He advocated expansionist monetary policies to achieve full employment and advocated a range of interventions, including the minimum wage and guaranteed employment.Marxism is an economic and social system based upon the political and economic theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. While it would take veritably volumes to explain the full implications and ramifications of the Marxist social and economic ideology, Marxism is summed up in the Encarta Reference Library as “a theory in which class struggle is a central element in the analysis of social change in Western societies.” Marxism is the antithesis of capitalism which is defined by Encarta as “an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods, characterized by a free competitive market and motivation by profit.” Marxism is the system of socialism of which the dominant feature is public ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange. Under capitalism, the proletariat, the working class or “the people,” own only their capacity to work; they have the ability only to sell their own labor. According to Marx a class is defined by the relations of its members to the means of production. He proclaimed that history is the chronology of class struggles, wars, and uprisings. Under capitalism, Marx continues, the workers, in order to support their families are paid a bare minimum wage or salary. The worker is alienated because he has no control over the labor or product which he produces. The capitalists sell the products produced by the workers at a proportional value as related to the labor involved. Surplus value is the difference between what the worker is paid and the price for which the product is sold. An increasing decline of the proletariat occurs as the result of economic recessions; these recessions result because the working class is unable to buy the full product of their labors and the ruling capitalists do not consume all of the surplus value. A proletariat or socialist revolution must occur, according to Marx, where the state (the means by which the ruling class forcibly maintains rule over the other classes) is a dictatorship of the proletariat. Communism evolves from socialism out of this progression: the socialist slogan is “From each according to his ability, to each according to his work.” The communist slogan varies thusly: “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.”Industrial unionism is a labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same unionﾑregardless of skill or tradeﾑthus giving workers in one industry, or in all industries, more leverage in bargaining and in strike situations. Advocates of industrial unionism value its contributions to building unity and solidarity, suggesting the slogans, "an injury to one is an injury to all" and "the longer the picket line, the shorter the strike."SocialismUtopian SocialismUtilitarianismMarxism; CommunismUnionism
5Europe Western Settler Societies Search for new markets and raw materialsTransportation and communications improvedSuperior weaponsMassive emigration spread western cultureMany Europeans sought out new opportunities for improve their lives in other places. Settler societies were created by Europeans who felt secure in their nation’s power to protect them. The Industrial Revolution prompted a major expansion of the West’s power. New markets for manufactured goods and new sources of raw materials were needed, The transportation and communication networks resulting from the Industrial Revolution intensified the effect of the Western-led world economy. They also allowed Europeans and their superior weapons to spread their empires. Massive European immigration created overseas Western societies.
6Western Settler Societies MigrationIncreased as Europeans went to the US, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and South Africa in search of cheap land and better economic opportunitiesServed as a new labor forceMost migrants were free agents although some were indentured servants
7Western Settler Societies Three British coloniesEstablished parliamentary governments, vigorous commercial economies, European cultural patternsDependent on British economyCanadaFriction between British rulers and French inhabitantsFormed a federal systemMajority of French lived in QuebecAustralia1788, lived among indigenous hunting and gathering populationAgricultural development and discovery of goldSpurred population growth and economyFederal system developed in 1900New ZealandMissionaries and settlers moved into Maori territoryMaori defeated by the 1860sGenerally good relationsDeveloped strong agricultural economy and parliamentary systemThe three British colonies also received many immigrants during the 19th century. They established parliamentary government, vigorous commercial economies and followed European cultural patterns. Canada, after continuing friction between British rulers and French inhabitants, formed a federal system, with the majority of the French residing in Quebec. The Australian colonies developed after 1788 amidst an indigenous hunting and gathering population, Agricultural development and the discovery of gold spurred population growth and the economy, A federal system of government emerged by In New Zealand, missionaries and settlers moved into Maori lands. The Maori were defeated by the 1860s. Generally good relations followed and New Zealand developed a strong agricultural economy and a parliamentary system, The three territories remained part of the British Empire and were dependent on its economy. Basic European cultural forms prevailed.
8Global Industrialization Global division of laborDependency theoryEurope’s growing power during the 19th c. transformed the world. Imperialism and the new world economy pushed European interests into every corner of the globe, creating a template to be emulated or resisted. Generally however, developing nations did the work for little or no pay while European nations reaped the benefits.Until the 1960s, the prevailing theory of economic development, known as modernization theory, maintained that industrialization, the introduction of mass media, and the diffusion of Western ideas would transform traditional economies and societies. These influences would place poor countries on a path of development similar to that experienced by Western industrialized nations during the 19th and 20th centuries.Dependency theory rejects the central assumptions of modernization theory. In the 1960s advocates of dependency theory-mostly social scientists from the developing world, particularly Latin America-argued that former colonial nations were underdeveloped because of their dependence on Western industrialized nations in the areas of foreign trade and investment. Rather than benefiting developing nations, these relationships stunted their development. Drawing upon various Marxist ideas, dependency theorists observed that economic development and underdevelopment were not simply different stages in the same linear march toward progress. They argued that colonial domination had produced relationships between the developed and the developing world that were inherently unequal. Dependency theorists believed that without a major restructuring of the international economy, the former colonial countries would find it virtually impossible to escape from their subordinate position and experience true growth and development.
9Reaction and Reform Questions of change and reform Ottoman Empire Alteration of traditional societyOttoman EmpireIn decline, less unifiedDecrease in tradeAtlantic tradeDependent on foreign loans and goodsCapitulations (special rights and privileges)Parts of Asia, still independent from European dominance after 1750 suffered from political decline and from the reactions to new challenges, They also faced the threat of Western imperialism and the West’s industrial lead.The Ottoman empire was in full retreat. By the early 18th c. weak rulers of the empire left the eay open for power strugglers among officals, religious experts, and Janissary commanders. Provincial administrators and landholders colluded to drain revenue from the central treasury. The general economy suffered from competition with the West as imported goods ruined local industry. European rivals took advantage of Ottoman weakness. The Austrians pushed the Ottomans from Hungary and the northern Balkans. The strengthened Russian state expanded in to the Caucasus and Crimea. The subject Christian peoples of the Balkan s challenged their rulers: The Greeks won independence in 1830 and the Serbians in 1867.The Ottomans survived because of European competition and fear of territorial divisions. The weakened empire was preserved by internal reform. Selim III’s modest military and administrative reforms angered officials and the Janissaries, he was killed in Mahmud II was more successful. With the help of European advisors, he built a professional army that destroyed the Janissaries in He then launched far-reaching reforms patterned on Western models
10Reaction and Reform Mahmud II Reform Reaction Organized more effective army and system of secondary educationBuilt new roads, telegraph lines, and postal serviceTanzimat era ( )Law reform based on French legal systemPublic trials and equality overtook religious lawReactionSultan Adbul Hamid ( )The reforms strengthened the state, but threatened the dynasty. Sultan Abdul Hamid ( ) tried to return to despotic absolutism. He nullified the constitution and restricted civil liberties, but continued military and educational reform and railway and telegraph construction. His harsh rule ended in 1908, when he was removed by the Young Turks.
11Reaction and ReformReforms met opposition from religious conservatives and bureaucracyThe Young TurksExiled Ottoman subjectsPushed for universal suffrageEquality before the lawEmancipation of women1908 coup d’etatPuppet sultanMuhammad Ali--EgyptPowerful armySponsored industrialization in textiles and armamentSuez Canalthe Young Turks, were reformers, including military officers, who wanted to continue Western-style reforms. Their coup d’etat in 1908 left a puppet sultan on the throne and considerably weakened the empire. They restored the constitution and civil liberties, but factional fights among the reformers hampered efforts, while war in the Balkans and north Africa lost territory. The Arabs under Ottoman rule began to seek independence.Napoleon’s victory over the Ottoman Mamluk vassals in Egypt destroyed the existing local power balance. The easy victory of the French demonstrated the vulnerability of Muslim regions before European power. When the British forced French withdrawal, an Albanian Ottoman officer, Muhammad Ali, emerged as Egypt's ruler by He introduced European military reforms and created a powerful army and navy that freed him from dependence on him nominal Ottoman overlord. Muhammad Ali also attempted, with limited success, to modernize Egypt's economy through reforms in agriculture, infrastructure, education, and industry, To keep Egypt secure, Muhammad Ali allied efforts with powerful rural landlords to control the peasants. The landlords resisted his reform efforts and remained a hereditary, entrenched class. The peasants were impoverished by the state’s continuing demands. Muhammad’s limited scope checked his plans for territorial expansion and left Egypt exposed to European threats.The regime and elites were indebted to European creditors. The Europeans invested in the building of the Suez Canal which opened in Muslim intellectuals and political activists looked for ways to protect Egypt from its inept rulers. The ancient University of al-Azhar became a focal center for Muslims from many lands.
12Reaction and Reform Russia vs. Ottoman Empire Similar Different Autocratic, multiethnic, multilingual, and multiculturalCzars supported by Russian Orthodox Church and noble class, sultans also supported by Muslims and noble classPeasants majority of populationSerfdom a guarantee of social stabilityDifferentRussia vastly expanded its territoryRussian military out of date (Crimean War)Russian government pushed to modernizeRussia defied the pattern of 19th century European domination. By 1914, they launched significant industrialization and accomplished other changes that preserved their independence. It continued to expand its influence in Eastern Europe and central Asia, while pressure from Europe continued on the Ottomans.By 1861, Russia had moved into an active period of social and political reform that established the base for industrialization by the 1890s. Immense social strain resulted as the government attempted to remain autocratic. Landlords had increased exports of grain by tightening labor obligations on serfs. Russia remained a profoundly agricultural society dependent on serf labor. Alexander II was convinced that reforms were necessary, and that meant resolving the issue of serfdom. Many believed that a free labor force would produce higher agricultural profits; others wished to end abuses or to end periodic peasant risings. Reform was seen as a way to protect distinctive Russian institutions, not to copy the West.
13Reaction and Reform Russia Emancipation of the serfs Alexander II in 1861Zemstvos--1864Elected representatives subordinate to the czarEncouraged industrializtionTrans-Siberian railroad (handout)Peasant rebellions and industrial worker strikesReduced working hours; but outlawed unions and strikesThe serfs were emancipated in 1861; they received land but did not gain any political freedoms. They were tied to their villages until they paid for the lands they received. The payments, and increasing taxation, kept most peasants very poor. The emancipation created a large urban labor force, but did not spur agricultural productivity. Peasants continued to use old methods for farming,Reform had not gone far enough, In the 1860s and 70s Alexander II improved law codes and created local political councils called zemstvoes, with authority over regional matters. The councils gave political experience to middle-class people, but they had no influence on national policy. There was military reform and a limited extension of the education system. Literacy increased rapidly and some women gained access to higher education and the professions,A move to industrialization was part of the process of change, State support was vital, since Russia lacked a middle class and capital. A railway system was created in the 1870s that reached the Pacific in the 1880s. The railways stimulated the iron and coal sectors, as well as the export of grain to the West.Despite all the reform, Russia remained a traditional peasant society that had not experienced the paradigm change that occurred with Western industrialization.Social protest was heightened by the limitations of reform and industrialization. Peasants suffered from famine, redemption payments, taxes, and population pressure. Educated Russians were also dissatisfied. Business people and professionals sought more personal freedoms and fuller political rights. At the same time, working0class unrest in the cities showed through union formation and strikes--both illegal--to compensate for lack of political outlets.
14Reform and Reaction Russia Anti-government protest increased IntelligentsiaLand and Freedom party assassinated Alexander II 1881Era of RepressionEnd of government reformExtensive military spendingDefeated by Japan inProtests continuedJanuary 1905Bloody Sunday, aka Revolution of 1905Created the DumaThe intelligentsia wanted radical political change and deep social reform while preserving a distinct Russian culture. Some of the intellectuals became anarchists who hoped to triumph by winning peasnat support. When peasants were not interested, some turned to terrorism. The government reaction was to pull back from reform, introduce censorship, and exile dissidents to Siberia. Alexander II was assassinated in 1881 and his successors opposed reform and continued political, religious, and ethnic repression,. By the 1890s new protest currents appeared. Marxist socialism spread among the intelligentsia. Vladimir Illych Lenin attempted to make Marxism fit Russian conditions and organized disciplined cells to work for the expected revolution.Russia continued imperialist expansion through the 19th and into the 20th century. Gains were made against the Ottomans in the 1870s New Slavic nations were created and there was talk of Russian leadership of pan Slavic movement. Russia was active in the Middle east in Persia and Afghanistan. In China, the Russians moved into Manchuria and gained long-term leases to territory. In 1904, Russia met with a similarly expanding Japanese nation and suffered a humiliating defeat.The loss unleashed further protests. Urban workers and peasants joined liberal groups in the Revolution of Some workers marched on the Winter palace to talk with the Czar about reforms, but were shot down by imperial soldiers; they had no weapons. The government finally bowed and created a national parliament, the Duma. More peasant reforms were introduced such as greater freedom from redemption payments and liberal purchase and sale of land. The aim was to create a market-oriented peasantry divided from the rest of the peasant mass. Some entrepreneurs among the peasants--kulaks--did increase production, But the reform package quickly fell apart as the czar withdrew rights, took authority away from the Duma and resumed police repression.
15Reform and Reaction China Qing dynasty losing effectiveness Rapid population increaseQuadrupled to 420,000,000 people (estimate)Created strain on nationMany famines, wars, and rebellions weakened the dynastyTradeBritish customs disputeOpium Wars (China defeated)Creation of unequal treaties favoring British and other EuropeansBy the late 18th century, the Qing were in decline. The exam system, which provided able bureaucrats, was riddled by cheating and favoritism. Positions in government service were seen as a method of gaining influence and building family fortunes. The resulting revenue loss caused a weakening of the military and deterioration of the dams of the Yellow River. By the middle of the 19th century, flooding left millions of peasants without resources. Throughout the empire, mass migrations and bandits increased social unrest, The existing Chinese social and economic systems could not cope with the changes stemming from the greatly increased population resulting from the introduction of American crops.The Manchu continued to treat Europeans as just another type of barbarian, although the advances by Europeans in science and industry made them dangerous rivals to the empire. Confrontation occurred over the importation of opium from India to China. The British had lacked commodities, apart from silver, the exchange for Chinese goods, Opium reversed the trade balance in their favor, but the Chinese saw the trade as a threat to their economy and social order, Silver left the country and opium addiction became rampant. Government efforts to check the problem failed until the 1830s when an important official Lin Zexu, came to end the trade at Canton and nearby, He blocked European trading areas and destroyed opium. The British merchants demanded and received military intervention, War began in 1839; the Chinese were defeated on sea and land and sued for peace. Another conflict ended similarly in the 1850s. The settlement after the first war awarded Hong Kong to the British and opened other ports to European trade and residence,. The the 1890s, 90 ports were open and foreigners had gained long0term leases over ports and surrounding territory. Opium continued to pour into China. By the middle of the century, British officials managed China’s foreign trade and customs, and the court had to accept European ambassadors.
16Reform and Reaction China Rebellions Taiping Rebellion Hong Xiuquan Believed he was brother of Jesus ChristSocial reform movement 1850sTaiping Tianguo (Heavenly Kingdom)Gained large territoryInternal disputes allow Qing to defeat army (10 year struggle)Bloodiest civil war in historyThe dislocations caused by the European incursions spawned a massive rebellion in southern China during the 1850s and 60s. A semi-Christian prophet, Hong Xiuquan, began the Taping Rebellion. The dissidents offered programs of social reform, land redistribution, and liberation of women,. They attacked the traditional Chinese elite. The provincial gentry rallied to the Qing and assisted in the defeat of the rebellion.In the last decades of the century, dynamic provincial leaders led a “self-strengthening” movement aimed at countering the challenge of the West. They encouraged foreign investment in railways and factories and military modernization, They wanted only to preserve the existing order, not to transform it. Although they professed loyalty to the dynasty the Manchu and their allies among the scholar-gentry resisted reform.,
17Reform and Reaction China Empress Dowager Cixi Cancelled reforms and imprisoned the emperorAnti-foreigner Boxer RebellionMulti-national responseChina forced to pay indemnity for damagesNationalist MovementSun Yixian1911 modern Republic of ChinaThree Principles of the peopleNationalism; democracy; socialismMost people uneducated and unable to feed themselvesThe last decades of the dynasty were dominated by the dowager empress, Cixi. In 1898 she crushed a serious reform effort, The involvement of members of the royal household in the Boxer Rebellion further weakened China.By the end of the century, sons of the scholar-gentry and compradors became involved in plots to overthrow the regime and to create a government modeled on that of the West, Sun Yat-sen was one of the its most articulate leaders, The revolutions were deeply hostile to European involvement in Chinese affairs. Sporadic outbursts failed in A spreading rebellion forced the abdication of the last Manchu in 1912 and led to the establishment of a republican government. The ending of the civil service exams in 1905was as important a watershed for Chinese civilization as the fall of the Qing in This step signified the ending of the use of Confucian values as a base for governing society. The era of the scholar-gentry had closed. Nonetheless, many Confucian attitudes survived to influence development in the newly emerging China.
18Reform and Reaction Japan-the Meiji Restoration The most radical reforms and changesEmerged as a world powerYounger generationWanted to undermine the daimyos, overthrew the shogun and advance modernization1868 restoration of the emperorNamed “Meiji” or “Enlightened One”Called both a revolution and a restorationJapan’s response to outside pressure was more direct and successful than that of Russia. The Japanese adapted to the challenge of industrial change and internal market reform. Many institutions had to be altered and much societal change resulted.In 1853, An American naval squadron commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan to the West. Later negotiations won the right to station a consul and open ports for commerce. European nations quickly secured equal rights. All sides appealed to the emperor. The shogunate had depended on the policy of isolation and proved unable to withstand the stresses caused by foreign intervention, Internal disorder resulted in the 1860s and ended in 1868 with the defeat of the shogunate and the proclamation of rule by Emperor Musuhito, called Meiji,.
19Reform and Reaction Japan-the Meiji Restoration Modernization Early reformsDissolution of the Samurai1877 Civil WarPowerful outside technology (guns)Momentum shifts to national armyPolitical reconstructionPolitical parties formedNew constitution 1889Limited the right to vote based on propertyThe Meiji government abolished feudalism; the daimyos or family leaders, were replaced by nationally appointed prefects in The new centralized administration expanded state power to carry out economic and social change. Samurai officials were sent to Europe and the United States to study their economies, technologies, and political systems. Between 1873 and 1876, the government abolished the samurai class and its state stipends. Most samurai became impoverished, and revolt resulted in The reformed army, based on national conscription, quickly triumphed due to supplies of more modern weapons and guns. The samurai continued to exist and many joined politics. By 1889, the political reconstruction was complete. Political parties had formed on regional levels. The Meiji created a new conservative nobility from former nobles and Meiji leaders; they sat in a British-style House of Peers. The bureaucracy was reorganized, expanded, and opened to those taking civil service exanimation, The constitution of 1889 gave major authority to the emperor and less power to the lower house of the Diet or parliament High property qualification limited the right to vote to about 5% of the male population. The system gave power to an oligarchy of wealthy businessmen and former nobles that controlled political currents into the 20th century. Japan had imitated the West, but retained its own identity.
20Reform and Reaction Japan-the Meiji Restoration Rapid industrialization and modernizationModern infrastructure and militaryDefeated the Chinese and Russians in warBegan building an empire in the PacificIndustrial revolution by non-EuropeansJapan’s reorganization went beyond political life, A western-style army and navy were created. New banks were established to fund trade and provide investment capital. Railways and steam vessels improved national communications, Old restrictions on commerce were removed, Land reform cleared the way for individual ownership and stimulated production. Government initiative dominated manufacturing because of the lack of capital and unfamiliar technology, A ministry of industry was created in 1870 to establish overall economic policy and operate certain industries. Model factories were created to provide industrial experience and an expanded education system offered technical training, Private enterprise was involved in the growing economy especially in textiles, Entrepreneurs came from all social ranks. By the 1890s huge industrial combines or zaibatsu had been formed.The changes in econo0mic power influenced foreign policy. By the 1890s Japan had joined the imperialist nations. The need for raw materials helped pressure expansion, China and Japan fought over Korea in and Japan’s quick victory signaled their emergence as a power. Rivalry with Russia brought war in 1904 and another Japanese victory, Korea was annexed in 1910.By 1900 Japan was fully engaged in an industrial revolution, Its success in managing foreign influences was a major accomplishment, but Japan before World War I was still behind the West. It depended on Western imports--of equipment and coal--and on world economic conditions.