Presentation on theme: "Preview Section 1 Characteristics of the Atmosphere"— Presentation transcript:
1 Preview Section 1 Characteristics of the Atmosphere Section 2 Atmospheric HeatingSection 3 Global Winds and Local WindsSection 4 Air PollutionConcept Mapping
2 Section 1 Characteristics of the Atmosphere Bellringer 11/3/14List the ways that the atmosphere is different from outer space.Write your list in your science journal.
3 Section 1 Characteristics of the Atmosphere ObjectivesThe Student will Describe the composition of Earth’s atmosphere.The Student will Explain why air pressure changes with altitude.The Student will Explain how air temperature changes with atmospheric composition.The Student will Describe the layers of the atmosphere.
4 The Composition of the Atmosphere Section 1 Characteristics of the AtmosphereThe Composition of the AtmosphereThe atmosphere is made up mostly of nitrogen gas. Oxygen makes up a little more than 20% of the atmosphere.
5 Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature Section 1 Characteristics of the AtmosphereAtmospheric Pressure and TemperatureThe atmosphere is held around the Earth by gravity. Gravity pulls gas molecules in the atmosphere toward the Earth’s surface, causing air pressure.As altitude increases, air pressure decreases.Air temperature decreases as altitude increases. Lower parts of the atmosphere are warmer because they contain a high percentage of gases that absorb solar energy.
6 Layers of the Atmosphere Section 1 Characteristics of the AtmosphereLayers of the AtmosphereThe Troposphere: The Layer in Which We Live The lowest layer of the atmosphere, which lies next to the Earth’s surface, is called the troposphere.The Stratosphere: Home of the Ozone Layer The atmospheric layer above the troposphere is called the stratosphere.The Mesosphere: The Middle Layer The mesosphere is the middle layer of the atmosphere. It is also the coldest layer.
7 Layers of the Atmosphere, continued Section 1 Characteristics of the AtmosphereLayers of the Atmosphere, continuedThe Thermosphere: The Edge of the Atmosphere The uppermost atmospheric layer is called the thermosphere.The Ionosphere: Home of the Auroras In the upper mesosphere and the lower thermosphere, nitrogen and oxygen atoms absorb harmful solar energy. This area is called the ionosphere.
9 Section 2 Atmospheric Heating Bellringer 11/7/2014How is food heated in an oven? How is food heated on a range top?Record your response in your science journal.
10 Section 2 Atmospheric Heating ObjectivesThe Student will Describe what happens to solar energy that reaches Earth.The Student will Summarize the processes of radiation, thermal conduction, and convection.The Student will Explain the relationship between the greenhouse effect and global warming.
11 Energy in the Atmosphere Section 2 Atmospheric HeatingEnergy in the AtmosphereRadiation: Energy Transfer by Waves The Earth receives energy from the sun by radiation. Radiation is the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves.Conduction: Energy Transfer by Contact Thermal conduction is the transfer of thermal energy through a material. HAS TO TOUCHConvection: Energy Transfer by Circulation Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas.
13 Energy in the Atmosphere, continued Section 2 Atmospheric HeatingEnergy in the Atmosphere, continuedThe Greenhouse Effect and Life on Earth The greenhouse effect is the process by which gases in the atmosphere absorb thermal energy and radiate it back to Earth.
15 Energy in the Atmosphere, continued Section 2 Atmospheric HeatingEnergy in the Atmosphere, continuedGreenhouse Gases and Global Warming Some scientists think that an increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may be the cause of global warming.The Radiation Balance: Energy In, Energy Out The amount of energy Earth receives and the amount of energy returned to space must be approximately equal.
16 Section 3 Global Winds and Local Winds Bellringer 11/10/2014Write a poem about moving air. The poem should include an explanation of why air moves.Record your response in your science journal.
17 Section 3 Global Winds and Local Winds ObjectivesThe Student will Explain the relationship between air pressure and wind direction.The Student will Describe global wind patterns.The Student will Explain the causes of local wind patterns.
18 Section 3 Global Winds and Local Winds Why Air MovesAir Rises at the Equator and Sinks at the Poles As the cold air sinks, it creates areas of high pressure around the poles. This cold polar air then flows toward the equator.Pressure Belts Are Found Every 30º Convection cells are separated by pressure belts, bands of high and low pressure.
20 Why Air Moves, continued Section 3 Global Winds and Local WindsWhy Air Moves, continuedThe Coriolis Effect The apparent curving of the path of currents due to the Earth’s rotation is called the Coriolis effect.
22 Section 3 Global Winds and Local Winds Polar Easterlies are the wind belts that extend from the poles to 60° latitude in both hemispheres.Westerlies are the wind belts found between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres.Trade Winds are the winds that blow from 30° latitude almost to the equator in both hemispheres.
23 Global Winds, continued Section 3 Global Winds and Local WindsGlobal Winds, continuedThe Doldrums The trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres meet in an area around the equator called the doldrums.The Horse Latitudes At about 30° north and 30° south latitude, sinking air creates an area of high pressure called the horse latitudes.Jet Streams are narrow belts of high-speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.
25 Section 3 Global Winds and Local Winds Local winds generally move short distances and can blow from any direction.Mountain and valley breezes are examples of local winds caused by an area’s geography.Sea and land breezes are affected by temperature.