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Presentation on theme: "Atmosphere and Winds E4.p2X-A,F, I. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ATMOSPHERE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmosphere and Winds E4.p2X-A,F, I


3 Composition of the Atmosphere Atmosphere-mixture of gases around the Earth – 78% Nitrogen-(released from decay/eruptions) – 21% Oxygen – 1% Other- (Carbon Dioxide, Argon) Can also contain liquid and solids – Water vapor – Dirt, smoke, ash, etc

4 Pressure Air Pressure- measure of force which air molecules push on a surface Changes throughout the atmosphere

5 Atmosphere is held around the planet by gravity Gravity pulls at the air molecules, giving them greater weight the closer they are to the Earth Altitude- height of an object above Earth’s surface – As altitude increases, pressure decreases

6 Layers of the Atmosphere Troposhere- – Lowest layer – 90% of atmosphere’s mass Stratosphere- – Second lowest layer – Extremely cold, moisture-less, – Contains the Ozone Layer

7 Layer cont... Mesosphere- – Second highest layer – Coldest layer ( -93 degree Celsius) – Contains large wind storm Thermosphere- – Uppermost layer – Highest temps due to spread of particles

8 A Fifth Layer? Ionosphere- – Upper Meso and Lower Thermospheres – Absorbs gamma and X-rays – Reflects radio waves and radiant energy in colors

9 Assignment Day 1 1.What is the connection between altitude and pressure? 2. What is the relationship between gravity and pressure? 3. Define- atmosphere, air pressure, altitude 4. Draw a Diagram of the Layers of the Atmosphere – Include: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere


11 Do Now What does this pie chart represent? Gases of the Atmosphere! – 78% N – 21% O – 1% other

12 Temperature- amount of energy in a given space Please Draw 

13 Energy in the Atmosphere What are the three ways thermal energy is transferred? Convection Conduction Radiation

14 How Earth receives Sun’s energy Sun’s Radiation:

15 Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect- atmosphere traps thermal energy Atmosphere! Sun’s Radiation

16 Greenhouse Gases- Gases that raise the temp of the atmosphere – Ex: Carbon dioxide Global Warming- rise in avg global temps Radiation Balance- balance between incoming energy from the sun and outgoing energy into space – Planting trees helps maintain balance

17 Assignment Day 2 1. What are the three types of thermal energy transfer? 2. Which type of thermal energy transfer is how the Earth get’s energy from the sun? 3. Which type of thermal energy transfer causes winds? (Think of the circular motion) 4. Please draw and label the greenhouse effect. 5. Why does the planting of trees help with radiation balance?


19 Wind Which type of thermal energy transfer is the cause of wind? CONVECTION/CONVECTION CURRENTS! Wind- moving air – Wind and wind movements are causes by differences in air pressure

20 Why Air Moves Greater pressure, faster wind movement – Pressure caused by uneven heating of Earth High Pressure – Polar air is cold and dense – Cold, sinking air creates high pressure area Low Pressure – Equator air is warm and less dense – Rises and creates low pressure area

21 Pressure difference causes air movement Air generally moves from high to low pressure Please Draw

22 Pressure Belts Low Pressure Belts- – Equator – 60 degrees N and S High Pressure Belts- – 30 degrees N and S – N and S Poles

23 Cause for Pressure Belts Pressure Belts AKA Convection Cells High Pressure – Warm air from Equator moves towards Poles – At about 30 degrees, air begins to cool and sinks Low Pressure – Cold air from Poles moves towards Equator – At about 60 degrees, air begins to warm and rises

24 Coriolis Effect Coriolis Effect- Curving motion of objects and wind due to Earth’s rotation Winds don’t blow directly North or South – Affected by rotation

25 Types of Winds Trade Winds – Between equator and 30 degree both hemis Westerlies – Between 30-60 degrees in both hemis – Flow to the west, opposite of trade winds Easterlies – Between 60degrees and poles in both hemis – Cold, sinking air flows to the east

26 Types of Winds (cont) Doldrums – low pressure at Equator where trade winds meet Horse Latitudes – 30 degree area of high pressure Jet Streams – Narrow belts of high speed winds (up to 500mph) Local Winds – Move short distances in any direction


28 Assignment Day 3 1. How does the Coriolis Effect affect winds? 2. Where are the Doldrums and the Horse Latitudes located at? 3. What factor(s) cause wind? 4. What is the difference between high pressure and low pressure areas? 5. What is the other name for the Pressure Belts? Explain why this makes sense.

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