Presentation on theme: "Mesopotamia Primary Empires. Mesopotamia means “Land between the rivers” Civilization developed between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, in present day."— Presentation transcript:
The World’s First Known Civilization – Sumer 3,000 BCE - 2,350 BCE
SumeriansInventions – Arch – Dome – Wheel – Writing (cuneiform) – Number system based on 60 PolytheisticTheocracy
The Epic Consider: –What do these films have in common? Lord of the Rings Star Wars
The Epic Meets the following criteria –It is a long verse narrative on a serious subject –Told in a formal and elevated style –Centered on a heroic or quasi-divine figure on whose actions depends the fate of a tribe, a nation, or the human race.
The Epic Write down as many modern epics that fit this criteria.
The Epic Traditionally were written versions of oral poems. –Usually about a tribal or national hero during warlike times.
The Epic Hero is a figure of great national, or cosmic, importance. Setting is ample in scale Action involves superhuman deeds in battle or a long, arduous, and dangerous journey. Gods and other supernatural beings take an interest. Ceremonial performance and narrated in a ceremonial style.
Epic of Gilgamesh Tablet 11 of Epic of Gilgamesh
Recited orally for centuries –Recorded 2800-3000 BCE –Predates all other major writings of antiquity Gilgamesh –semi historical figure may have ruled Uruk around 2800 BCE –Two-thirds god; one-third man –Searches for ever-lasting life. Enkidu (Inn-KEY-Do) –Dearest companion of Gilgamesh –Killed because Gilgamesh spurns affection of the Queen of Heaven, Ishtar
Key Themes: Peeping Tom: –Window into Mesopotamia The nature of the relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu –Civilization vs. Beast –Friendship Cultural Difference –Role of Women Nature of Gods Importance of Fame / Immortality
Persian government became a model for future governments Cyrus & Darius Established a tax collection system Allowed locals to keep customs and religions Built a system of roads that are still used today Satrep – “governor”
The Persian Religion –Founded by the prophet Zoroaster. –Central theme is a struggle between good an evil. –Concept of heaven (pairidaeza) and hell. –Was taken up by Alexander the Great, the Romans, and future world religions.
Persian empire ended when it was overrun by Alexander the Great in 331 BCE.